Cancer starts when cells in thebody begin to grow out of control Cells in nearly any part of the body canbecome cancer, and can spread to other areas of the body.
Cervical cancer starts in the cellslining the cervix. Cancer is a disease which is caused when cells in the humanbody grow old they die and new cells are replaced, the old cells when diesbecome damaged or they do not die and form a mass of tissue which grows into atumour 1. Cancer or tumourcan be divided into two groups i.e.
benign and malignant where benign is describedas tumour that does not invade and destroy the tissue in which it originates orspread to distant sites in the body (non-cancerous tumour) while malignant isdescribed as tumour that invades and destroys the tissue in which it originatesand can spread to other sites in the body via blood-stream and lymphatic system(cancerous tumour). Cervicalcancer is the second most common cancer affecting woman worldwide, breastcancer being the first but at the same time it is one of the most preventableand treatable cancers . Since the most common form of cervical cancer startswith pre-cancerous changes and develops very slowly, some percentage ofcervical cancers may be prevented if cell changes are detected and treatedearly 2. Human PapillomaVirus (HPV) infection is a necessary factor in the development of nearly allcases of cervical cancer, thevirus can damage cells in the cervix, namely, squamous cells and glandularcells that may develop into squamous cell carcinoma (cancer of the squamouscells) and adenocarcinoma (cancer of the glandular cells) 3.Other various causes are Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), smokingand birth control pills earlyinitiation of sexual activity, poor hygiene, long term use of oralcontraceptives, diet low in antioxidants, multiparity and low socioeconomicstatus 4.The primary reason is lack of awareness of the disease and access to screeningaimed at detecting precancerous lesions 5and health services, Although early exposure from women who have sexualrelationship and those with multiple sexual partners and eventually, cervicalcancer, it is however possible for a woman to be infected even if she has hadonly one sexual partner are at high risk of contracting HPV 6.Traditionally, optical tests such as Visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA),cervicography and colposcopy that employ direct visual examination of thecervix are becoming popular as a diagnostic tool. Healthcare professionalsstudy the cervix at about one minute after applying the 5% acetic acid to thecervix area.
Aceto white region (AW), which is the suspected region of cervix,and other vascular abnormalities such as mosaicism, punctuation and vasculaturemay appear 7. Cervical cancer(CC) if detected early has very good prognosis. Cervical screening usingPapsmear images is one of the most effective ways of detecting and diagnosingthe disease even at an early pre-cancerous stage.
A Pap smear can also detectchanges in our cervical cells that suggest cancer may develop in the future.Detecting these abnormal cells early with a Pap smear is the first step inhalting the possible development of cervical cancer. Cervical cancer develops fromnormal to precancerous cells (dysplasia) over periods of time 8. Despite the factthat the dysplasia cells look like tumour cells, they are not threateningcells. These cells are known as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) whichis more often than not of second rate, and they just influence the surface ofthe cervical tissue.
In view of WHO system, the level of CIN (which is a pre-malignant conditionfor cervical cancer) 9 development can be separated into grades 1, 2, and 3. Cancerouscells show increasing nucleus area when compared to normal cells 13.Screeningby PAP’s smear help in detection of cancer and its cure at early stages 10,detection and segmentation of Pap smear image is one of the interesting work ofimage analysis. The detection of cervical cancer is very challenging task inthe medical analysis because of the tedious effort in segmenting andclassifying cervical cells into normal,abnormal and cancerous cells 11.The manual classification of cervical cancer suffers from many drawbacks and itleads in finding more ways like the automated or computerised classificationmethods.
ACNN is a powerful tool that is used to classify visual inputs into differentclasses 12.The reason CNN is widely successful in the task of classification is becausethe network is modelled on animal visual perception and therefore is well equippedto perform such tasks. Also structurally, the CNN contains multiple layers ofreceptive fields which have to process portions of input images and then theoutput is tiled so that the regions is overlap, thereby creating ahigher-resolution representation of the original image, this is repeated in alllayers 13 .Inimage categorization, every image has a major object which occupies a largeportion of the image 14. An image isclassified into one of the classes based on the identity of its main object. ACNN usually takes an order tensor as its input, example an image with H rows, Wcolumns, and channels (R, G, B color channels).
The input then sequentiallygoes through a series of processing.Incomparison to other image classification algorithms, there is very lesspre-processing in CNN. Hence the filters are learned instead of beinghard-coded in traditional algorithms. Cervicalcancer detection is very challenging because this cancer occurs without anysymptoms. So, early detection of cervical cancer may take a very precious rolein preventing this disease.Convolutional NeuralNetworks have turned into a well-known learning machine, now not just inside thecomputer vision group however across different applications going from regularlanguage processing to hyper spectral medical image analysis and to imageprocessing. The main goal of a CNN lies in its deep architecture, which permitsfor extricating a set of discriminating features at multiple levels ofabstraction 15 16