Buckley,Scheider & Shang (2007) posited that one factor which directly affectsteacher work life is indoor air quality. They further explained that teacher’sbehaviour and attitude are related to the quality of the classroom environment.Temperatureand ventilation in the classroom are crucial factors which influences the teachinglearning environment. Harmon (1953) furthered that classrooms should be designedin such a way which allows not just students but teachers to control the ventilationof the room.

2.5       Ventilationin classes            2.4       Enrichment areas in classrooms   (Savage,1999; Stewart and Evans, 1997) posited that the arrangement of the physicallearning environment plays a fundamental role in the teaching learning process.They further stated that this physical arrangement not only affects theperformance of pupils but teachers as well. Montessori,a philosophy on learning expressed that sizable open floor spaces forges theway for free movement in the classroom. In a model classroom, teachers wouldhave adequate space to rearrange seating to facilitate any learninginstructional strategy they choose to implement when teaching their primaryclass. According to Bonus and Riodan (1998), seating should be flexible inorder to accommodate various learning activities. Seating arrangement and spaceis important in a learner-centered classroom.

This allows pupils to interactand engage in projects along with task given by the teacher. Taylor (2008)stated that proper space allows for a variety of teaching methods and instructionalstrategies to occur.            includes the floor space, seatingaccommodation and crowdedness of a class. Spacein the classroom is one aspect of the hidden curriculum.

Classroom space 2.3       Classroomspace and seating accommodation   2.2       Satisfactionteachers get from teaching     Researchesdone by (Taylor, 2008; Veitch & Arkkelin, 1995; Voelkl 1995) as cited byHensley-Pipkin (2015) give emprial evidence which suggest that there is arelationship between environmental elements and human behaviour. Theseenvironmental elements being space, seating arrangement, temperature and enrichmentcorners. The physical environment of the classroom should support teaching andlearning skills.

This type of learning environment is backed by Copple andBredekamp (2009) who suggest that a quality learning environment should haveindividual learning space, quality research tools and materials. Weimer(2013) explained that when a teacher’s physical environment is aligned to theprinciples of learner centered instruction, teachers may be better prepared to meetcurrent learning and skill expectations. Montessori (1912) proposed thatteachers should prepare the classroom environment for learning.

She furtherstates that children should have a variety of easily available and accessiblelearning materials which would invite and enhance learning. Gredler(1997) stated that the main goal of education should be to give support to theinstinctive exploration of the child. Constructivist Pigaet (1953) stated thatchildren learn more when they are actively engaged in the learning process.

Headded that children at the primary leave who are at the concrete operationalstage, build knowledge through investigation and discovery. The constructivismtheory encourages that the learning environment be able to drive curiosity andexploration in children which will enhance the learning process. Dewey (1897) Accordingto Taylor (2009), he believed that different learning goals require distinctlearning strategies, varied instructional strategies and different learningspaces. Lang (1987) cited that the physical structure should afford directsupport for human activities. This moot was further reiterated by (MarzanoCenter, 2013; Vygotsky, 1978) who stated that to aid the learning processchildren should be provided with diverse learning experiences and awell-planned learning environment. Classroomspace has the potential to promote and strengthen the learning process in thesame way as the overt curriculum. Taylor and Vastos (2009) attributed thephysical environment as the silent curriculum.

Skinner posited that theclassroom environment should be conductive to children learning. Further, Lang(2004) expressed that the curriculum for creating learning environment isdelivered in the way the classroom is organized. Thetheoretical framework for this research will be based on the work of Dewey andPiaget on constructivism, as well as Lang’s work on Architectural Theory. Thephysical learning environment is according to Tunan (1979) an indoorenvironment where most of the education of children takes place. In Dewey’sphilosophy of learning he states that the environment plays a pivotal role ineducation. He describes the environment as curriculum, instructional methodsand physical setting.


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