BM0701Effective Oral CommunicationICA 3Presented to: Dr Christian ChiaPresented by: Tiffany Loke Jia Hui (173751H)Ting Sen ()Camilia Fan Jia Jia (175197E)Date of Presentation: Should animal testing be allowed/banned ?https://www.crueltyfreekitty.com/companies-that-test-on-animals/ Coach, Tommy Hilfiger, Gucci,Victoria’s Secret. Sounds familiar? Do you know the story behind of how these brands’ fragrances were made? I bet you won’t think twice when purchasing products from companies that have used animal testing.Did you know that approximately 26 million animals in the United States are used for commercial and scientific testing? Put yourselves in their shoes. Let’s put it the other way round. Imagine the animals used you as a “lab rat” instead, locking you up in a cage– you’re deprived of food and water, you have no control over your life, helplessly going through the physical and mental torture just for research of another living thing. Moreover, you will be spending your entire life in misery just like a prisoner even though you have not committed any crimes. You can’t choose how to spend your time, when and what to eat or even when the lights go on and off.This is life of laboratory animals. It is isolation ,deprivation , and misery. Should animals’ lives be deemed less worthy than humans’? So, what is animal testing? Animal testing refers to any experiment performed on a live animal ,where they are forced to undergo something that tortures them mentally and physically. During the process of any experiment, these animals are not given any painkillers, furthermore are usually killed at the end. They have also been used since 500 BC to develop treatments for diseases and to check on product safety for human use .https://www.neavs.org/research/harm-suffering ( use this for intro and reasons) Tingsen, Camilia and I have researched this topic and today, we’d like to share with you about our thoughts on animal testing. Tingsen will be covering the reasons for allowing animal testing since it brings many benefits to the human race; such as enabling a successful kidney transplant and treating breast cancer.On the other hand, Camilia will be reasoning against animal testing because it has been proven that testing on animals are not 100 percent reliable , furthermore the way these animals are being harmed.https://animal-testing.procon.org/ (pros and cons for animal testing) 2 reasons for argumentAnimal testing has contributed to many life saving with the discovery of cures and treatment. Humans shares about 95% of genes with a mice, which make them one of the most effective model for experiment on human body.1.How Animal testing benefits us from kidney failureAn average of 5,000 people will develop kidney failure every year and one-third of people with kidney failure would had pass away without a regular dialysis or kidney transplant. Animal experimentsJoseph E. Murray is an American plastic surgeon who had succeeded in performing the first human kidney transplant in 1954.Joseph and a few scientists were involved an experiment to master the surgical technique for organ transplant. In order for them to master those surgical technique, it was first carried out on bigger animal such as pigs and dogs in 1950’s. Even after the surgical technique was perfected, the experiment isn’t successfulWhy is it so?As rejection of new organ became the major problem as many patient who had undergo the kidney transplant does not survive as acute rejection will lead to another organ failure.That’s when Cyclosporine came in and deal with it. It was discovered in 1972, which is extracted from a type of fungus, And was tested on mice and found that it helps to prevent the rejection of a new organ in mice. Thereafter, was tested on dogs that have undergone organ transplant, thus resulting in a 3 times increase in survival rate thanks to Cyclosporine.What’s animal testing has done for humans? Without animal testing, it would be impossible for human-being to perfected the surgical technique and many more would had pass away without surgery.With the help of animal testing, around 16,000 kidney patients benefited from kidney transplants each year, without the need to go for regular dialysis anymore.2. How Animals testing benefits us from cancerResearch show that every 1 out of 10 women will diagnosed with breast cancer in their lifetime. Animal experimentsStudies in animal testing has shown that hormone changes can influence the breast tumors cells in rats. Which led to development of Tamoxifen which was discovered in 1967After further experiment with animal testing, it show a positive result of preventing the growth of cancers cellsWhy animals?Animal testing is a way where human can do research and find cure for a illness before testing it on humanBy using animals in cancer research, by growing human tumour cells in laboratory cell cultures.Without animal testing it is impossible to show that the cell culture results were relevant and reliable to humans and will respond to the same drugs in the patientsWhat’s it done for humans?With the help of animal testing, scientist was able to find a treatment for breast cancer. Today, breast cancer is of one the second most survivable female cancer, with a increase of 77% in survival rate.Tamoxifen was introduced in the 90s, is a medication that is used to help prevent and treat breast cancer in women or men by stopping the growth of hormone breast cancer cells, which had lead to 30% decrease in death rates from breast cancer. Today Tamoxifen has proven that it can help to prevent breast cancer in high-risk women.http://www.understandinganimalresearch.org.uk/about-us/science-action-network/forty-reasons-why-we-need-animals-in-research/https://www.crueltyfreeinternational.org/why-we-do-it/arguments-against-animal-testinghttps://animal-testing.procon.org/Animal studies, mainly rats and mice, have also been crucial in the development of monoclonal antibody treatments such as Herceptin.2 reasons against argumentRelying on animal research and testing to improve and protect human health is not only unsafe, but also expensive, time-consuming, and unreliable. All organisms are different in many ways, such as the way our organs function,drug absorption rate and metabolism rate.Many claim that ,”experimenting on animals have greatly contributed to medical advances.”Unfortunately, although our closest animal relatives are chimpanzees where we share 98% of our genes, researching on them are not fully reliable. For example, according to an article from the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, it concluded that this statement was not supported by any evidence. Most experiments on animals are not relevant to human health because they do not meaningfully contribute to medical advances. What’s worse is many experiments are carried out simply because of curiosity.The only reason people have this misconception that animal research help humans is because of social media, experimenters and universities exaggerating the potential animals have to find new cures and the role they’ve played in past medical advances. Are you aware that 95% of cancer drugs failed during clinical testing after entering human’s body ,even though millions of animals have been used and billions of taxpayers’ money were used for cancer research?Hence, the differences among humans and animals may have given us wrong and insufficient information of our human diseases and drug reactions.Additionally, according to Dr. Richard Klausner, the former Director of the National Cancer Institute said that they have successfully cured cancers in mice for decades but still failed in humans. The Food and Drug Administration report shows that 92 out of every 100 drugs that pass animal tests fail in humans. Researching on animals should also be banned because it causes them to be poisoned,burned , shocked , starved, drowned, addicted to drugs, and brain-damage.Experimenters force-feed chemicals to animals, conducting repeated surgeries on them, implanting wires in their brains, crushing their spines, and much more. Animals are also partially or entirely paralyzed for months during experiments.After enduring these terrifying, painful procedures, animals are then usually dumped into a cage without any painkillers. With reference to researchers at several major U.S. universities,they have all conducted “stress experiments” on rats and mice. It includes immobilizing mice and rats, shocking their feet, suspending them by their tails, and forcing them to swim to avoid drowning. Researchers claimed these experiments had relevance to human anxiety and depression. Although restraint is particularly stressful and frustrating for an animal, some experiments are designed to hold animals in partial or total immobilization for months. Animals not only suffer from pain but also suffer severe stress from day-to-day testing laboratory. An undercover lab examination in 2009 was carried out and it shows that mice are able to understand when watching other mice in agony and get influence by it. It also disclosed that monkeys were frantically jumping around in laboratory cages, ripping out their hairs, biting wounds and injuring themselves due to the never ending emotional distress they must endure during the tests. This is also known as, “stress-induced psychosis”. The testings in the laboratory are driving these animals crazy. https://www.peta.org/issues/animals-used-for-experimentation/animal-testing-bad-science/https://www.neavs.org/research/limitations https://www.peta.org/blog/top-five-reasons-stop-animal-testing/https://www.neavs.org/research/harm-sufferinghttps://www.peta.org/issues/animals-used-for-experimentation/animals-laboratories/ConclusionTo sum up, our group has concluded that animal testing should not be legalised. Although we humans benefit greatly from experimenting on animals such as finding a cure to human illnesses, we should not neglect the fact that harming any living organism is inhumane. Besides, 95% of cancer drugs testing that passed in animals have actually failed when tested on humans. Furthermore, with millions of animals used and suffering each year and billions of taxpayers’ money used to discover cures,we are just wasting time and money.In the US, more than 106,000 human die every year negative reactions through animal testings and causing injuries to 2.2million of humans.On the other hand, there are alternatives to solve this issue. Instead of testing on animals, the advancement of technology has enabled some scientists to develop and use modern methods to replace animals.This includes sophisticated tests using human tissue and cells (also known as in vitro methods), advanced testing on silico models, and studies on human volunteers. These methods do not used animals as models and therefore, not affected by species differences.They usually also save time and money to complete.” Be kind to every kind, not just mankind.” – Anthony Douglas Williams.http://www.prijatelji-zivotinja.hr/index.en.php?id=582ConclusionState your stand-AGAINSTWhat are the reasons for our standSummarise the most compelling reasonsEnd with a quote(PETA) found $56.4 million of government funds spent on animal experiments that, despite running over many years, failed to provide any useful results. Intro-define animal test, common of animal used? Benefits of testing, how is it benefits human being. Suffering of animalsIntrohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animal_testinghttps://www.crueltyfreeinternational.org/why-we-do-it/what-animal-testingtype of common of lab animalhttp://www.biologydiscussion.com/animals-2/top-4-common-laboratory-animals/30647How its benefits human beinghttp://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3414756/Scientists-grown-human-EAR-rat-say-able-use-humans-five-years.html There is no evidence that animal experiments were essential in making major medical advances, and if enough money and resources were devoted to animal-free alternatives, other solutions would be found. 107 129 130 Humane Research Australia (HRA) reports that many discoveries made by non-animal methods were later verified by animal experiments, “giving false credit” to animal use.https://www.oneworldeducation.org/animal-testing-animal-crueltyINTRODUCTIONShould animal testing be allowed or banned?Animal testing refers any experiment being carried out on a live animal where they are forced to undergo something that cause them pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm. Animal experiments are not the same as taking your companion animal to the vet. Animals used in laboratories are deliberately harmed, not for their own good, and are usually killed at the end of the experiment.