Biogas is a renewable
energy. Biogas is produced by putrefactive bacteria that breaks down organic
matter under airless conditions and is used in energy production.  It can be called as anaerobic digestion.
Biogas is composed of methane gas, carbon dioxide, and trace amounts of
nitrogen, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide. Any organic wastes can be used to
produce biogas. The common sources to produce biogas are animal and plant
wastes. Not just from animal and plant wastes, biogas can also be produced from
wood waste, wastewater, and regular waste as raw materials. There
are a lot of types of
biogas and three of them are
synthetic gas, sewage gas, and landfill gas.

The first type of biogas is
synthetic gas. Synthetic gas is formed from the wood biomass. According
to Paul Scherrer Institut (2009), to generate methane from wood, wood chips are
first turned into gas using hot vapour. The gas is purified by removing sulphur
and converted into a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide by using a nickel
catalyst. The
gas enables the utilization of
energy for combined heat and power. This energy will make a combustible gas to
consumers, like industry, residential areas, and tourist resorts. The
combustible components of the gas are predominantly hydrogen, carbon monoxide
and methane, and higher hydrocarbons. The process also produces waste heat
which is useful to generate electricity for the demand of industrial heat or to
feed district heating networks.

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The second type of biogas is
sewage gas. According to Clarke Energy (2014),
sewage gas is formed from
wastewater by the anaerobic
sludge stabilization, which the separated sludge can produce biogas. Sewage is
collected and sent to wastewater treatment plant, and then sent to sewage
digesters. In digestion progess, hydrolysis, the process where the organic
material is solubilised into the digestion liquid, occurs. Then, acidogenesis
and acetogenesis create the precursos molecules for methanogenesis. Methanogens
feed off precursors and produce methane as a cellular waste product. Sewage gas
is considered to be very effective
since harmful wastes
are used to generate heat and power.
Sewage gas can be used to maximizes renewable energy output and smoothens gas
production fluctuations by seamless dual fuel mixing. The efficiency is ensured by maintaining the
temperature, pH, stirring, removing oxygen and toxic substances.
electrical efficiencies help generate more electricity per unit of sewage gas

The third type of biogas is
landfill gas. Landfill gas is formed from regular wastes (raw garbage). According
to Green Group (2013), humans
produce 300—400 kg of waste per person per year. This garbage is collected and
disposed of in safe sanitary landfills. The garbage will decompose under the
influence of microorganisms (bacteria) under anaerobic conditions. Too much
landfill gas is also very dangerous for the environment since it contains
methane that is very explosive at some conditions. To remove the negative
effects of uncontrolled proliferation of landfill gas, collection is carried
out and forcibly burned. One of the uses of the burning is for energy purposes
while creating economic benefits. Such as, over a compressor plant, landfill
gas is sucked out, compressed, dried and directed to the gas engine (CHP
engine). The heat can be applied in heating buildings or processing food
products. The by-product heat engine at moderate temperatures can be used for

To conclude, biogas can be
generated by any raw organic materials under an anaerobic process, such as
wastes. The waste can be from wood biomass that will create synthetic gas that
will make a combustion gas. Wastewater will create sewage gas that will maximize renewable
energy output. Raw garbage
will create landfill gas that will provide energy for machines to heat and
process food. The different types of biogas might have different sources, but
it all eventually will have the same purpose, generating heat and power for the
sake of a better human life. It shows that biogas can be produced from anything
due to many available sources. 


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