Basketball is played by smart, athletic, and physical players who love the game and want to excel at the sport. The year was 1981 in Springfield, Massachusetts the game of basketball was made. Canadian physical instructor James Naismith and one of his students thought of a game that would take skill and accuracy to throw a ball into a basket from a certain distance. The game only had eighteen players when the game was first invented. 1901 marked a landmark year for the game of basketball as colleges began sponsoring games. At first, only a few colleges participated including Yale, Minnesota, Dartmouth, Columbia, Chicago, Utah, and Navy.           In the early days of college sports, most teams played less than ten games with the lucky ones that win playing fifteen or sixteen. In 1901, Yale would be the first to win the national championship in college history. In 1902, Minnesota would be the first team to go undefeated in college. June 6, 1946, the first pro basketball association was formed; it was originally called (BAA) Basketball Association America. Then in 1949, they adopted the (NBA) National Basketball Association. When basketball was first invented requires little equipment to play two peach baskets hanging ten feet high and a soccer ball. The object of the game was to try and throw of bat the ball into the opponent’s peach basket and score as much as you could without them scoring in your peach basket. After scoring, they had a problem getting the ball back because the bottom of the basket was closed off so they had to stop the game and use a long stick to poke the ball out and continue the game. Originally the number of players on the floor could be as many as the coach wanted because there was not a rule about it. In 1987, they made a rule only allowing five players to be on the court at one time. Initially, players were not allowed to re-enter the game after they came out. That rule was changed in 1934 and it allowed players to enter the game twice after they left the game. Then in 1945 that rule was changed to allow any player to re-enter the game at any point of the game. The game was originally played with peach baskets, and then in 1981 the peach basket was replaced with iron rims and nylon nets. Wire mesh backboards were introduced in 1995. The first ball used for the games was a soccer ball. But it was hard to dribble the soccer ball so they replaced it with a new and improved ball made a type of rubber it was manufactured by a bicycle company. During the first games they played two fifteen minute halves. Then it was changed to two twenty minute halves and most games ended in a tie. In 1945 the NBA instituted a twenty four second shot clock. Fouls were assessed for using a fist, traveling, and physical contact. When free throws were introduced in 1984 they were measured at twenty four foot away from the basket. Anyone could shoot the free throw, then in 1994 the free throw was moved up to fifteen feet and only the player who was fouled could shoot the free throw. During the first games the players were not able to bounce the ball. Then in 1901 they changed that rule to where the player can only bounce the ball once but then has to pass it and they could not shoot it if they bounced it beforehand. Then in 1909 they made it where the player can dribble and pass as much as they wanted to. In the beginning there were no boundaries there were only walls. Then in 1903 they invented an out of bounds line and made the rule that who ever touched the ball after the ball goes out of that boundary the other team gets the ball.  The mid court line was established in 1932 to eliminate stalling. They installed a new rule with the mid court line called back court when a player passes that line then they can not go back past that line. In 1936 they put in the three second area players can only stay in that area for three seconds if they stay longer then it will result in a turnover. In 1944 the rule goaltending was put into effect Players would force the ball out of the opponents rim and keeps them from scoring. During a basketball game against the Minnesota Timberwolves in 1997, a player got caught up and tripped by a cameraman and got mad and he kicked the cameraman and it resulted in a eleven game suspension and a one million dollar fine. It was one of the first fines and suspensions of the NBA. It has been proven that a warmer ball bounces higher than a cold ball. The average height of a pro basketball player is sixty seven inches. The average weight of a basketball player is 200 pounds. Basketball is a team sport. Two teams of five players each try to score by shooting a ball through a hoop elevated 10 feet above the ground. The game is played on a rectangular floor called the court, and there is a hoop at each end. The court is divided into two main sections by the mid-court line. If the offensive team puts the ball into play behind the mid-court line, it has ten seconds to get the ball over the mid-court line. If it doesn’t, then the defense gets the ball. Once the offensive team gets the ball over the mid-court line, it can no longer have possession of the ball in the area in back of the line. If it does, the defense is awarded the ball. When a team makes a basket, they score two points and the ball goes to the other team. If a basket, or field goal, is made outside of the three-point arc, then that basket is worth three points. A free throw is worth one point. Free throws are awarded to a team according to some formats involving the number of fouls committed in a half and/or the type of foul committed. Fouling a shooter always results in two or three free throws being awarded the shooter, depending upon where he was when he shot. If he was beyond the three-point line, then he gets three shots. Other types of fouls do not result in free throws being awarded until a certain number have accumulated during a half. Once that number is reached, then the player who was fouled is awarded a ‘1-and-1’ opportunity. If he makes his first free throw, he gets to attempt a second. If he misses the first shot, the ball is live on the rebound. In the history of basketball, the highest-rated college basketball game seen on U.S. television was the 1979 NCAA tournament championship game of Michigan State vs. Indiana State, which featured Magic Johnson and Larry Bird. This was one of the best-rated basketball games in basketball history. Although basketball was born in the United States, five of Naismith’s original players were Canadians, and the game spread to Canada immediately. It was played in France by 1893; England in 1894; Australia, China, and India between 1895 and 1900; and Japan in 1900.

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