Baldwin, Mclntyre,& Hardaway, 2007) defined that parenting style is one of the variables thathave been studied extensively in human development.
(Gadeyne,Ghesquiere, & Onghena, 2004) explained that it is considered an importantdeterminant of several aspects of children’s outcome. The notion have beenrelated to children and adolescent academic achievement (Lamborn, Mounts,Steinberg, & Dornbusch, 1991), optimism (Baldwin, Mclntyre, & Hardaway,2007), confidence (Strage & Brandt, 1999), motivation (Gonzalez , 2006), externalizing problem behaviour and attention problems(Gadeyne, Ghesquiere, & Onghena, 2004). Parenting style depends on thebehaviour and attitude of parents. Parenting style is a psychological constructwhich represented standard strategies parents use in raising their children.The term is a complex activity that includes many specific behaviors that workindividually and collectively to influence the child. Baumrind (1971)identified two major variables based on parenting styles and child outcomes.One of them was the responsiveness of parents to their child’s needs in asupportive, reasonable and nurturing way. Parenting style captures two importantelements of parenting: parental demand and parental responsiveness (Maccoby & Martin, 1983).
(Rodriguez, Donovick,and Crowley, 2009) stated that parenting styles can be beneficial inconsideration of complex behaviors and attitudes regarding to child outcomes. (Dawkins,2006) defined that parenting is a parental patterns which consists of failures,despair, panic, frustations as well as well-being, peace of mind and happiness.That’s the main reason parents wanted to find an interest and derive considerableand continuing happiness in their activities and relationships with theirchildren. Daniel and Steinberg (2003) described parenting style as “a combinationof parental behaviors and attitudes toward their children that are conveyed tothe children and that, as a whole, create an emotional bond in which theparents’ behaviors are expressed”. Park & Bauer, 2002 defined that parentingstyle which characterized by warm, acceptance and supportive tend to associatedwith higher academic performance, in contrast, parenting style such asauthoritarian style which involved high level of control and low level ofacceptance tend to associated with lower academic performance. Hoghughi & Long, 2004 found in a studythat the positive parenting produces a successful and healthystudent. A firm and positive sense of self and self – esteem can be enhancedthrough parenting. Kaisa et al.
, 2000 stated that the student, who is wellcared, would be emotionally resilient, strong and sociallycompetent. These students have the capacity to explore new opportunities.Research shows the association of adolescents’ achievement strategies withparenting styles in the family. Findings revealed a significant effect ofparenting styles on academic performance. Kamilah Noordin, 2005 illustratedthat parentsare the most important examples and reference materials for children.
Smith,2007 described that interacting with children and parents begin to knowthemselves and gain experience as a preparation for the challenges in futurelife. The experience of interacting with parents and family also determines thebehavior and attitude of children towards society and others. The role ofparents to enhance children’s potential can be realized through the concept ofeffective parenting styles (Azizi & Jaafar, 2006). Wei, 2008 stated that the aim ofparenting styles is to shape the character of the children so that the behaviorshown is appropriate to the needs of parents, families and communities. Parents play an important role in shapingadolescents personality, this is because the inappropriate interaction willaffect the adolescents in developing a good personality. Baumrind (1967) conducted a studyon more than 100 preschool-age children. Using, parental interviews, naturalisticobservation and other research methods, he revealed four important directionsof parenting styles.
These styles are: AuthoritativeParenting Style which can be described as highest in all of the stylesmentioned above, that is kind, nurturance and disciplinarystrategies, control, and communication styles and expectations ofmaturity. Permissive Parenting Style is high in nurturance andkindness but low in terms of communication style, discipline strategies, andexpectations of maturity and control. Baldwin, Mclntyre, , 2007 said that parenting style is one of the variables that have beenobserved broadly in human development. Gadeyne, Ghesquiere, & Onghena, 2004stated that parenting styles referred as an important part of several aspectsof children’s outcome.
The term has been belonged to children and adolescentacademic performance, enthusiasm, confidence, motivation, manifest problembehavior and attention problems. Brown & Iyengar,2008 explained that it is broadly admitted that parentingstyle has an impact on self-esteem, self-efficacy, and identity development,which are related with academic performance. Further, the progress inchildren’s performance is effected by the decision that is made by both parentsand their children to cooperate or confront each other. Brown & Iyengar, 2008 explainedthat when parents are neglectful, problem behavior and academicdisengagement are generated. Skowron, 2005) found in his study that mothers who were better to modulate emotionand ability to both autonomy and intimacy had children who had higher scoresfor mathematical and verbal achievement. Phillipson, 2007described that parents are seen to communicate their characteristics orexplanations for their children’s achievement in terms of day-to-dayinteractions and behavior with their children. Therefore, parents are influencedby their children’s academic achievement, and children’s achievement is, inturn, influenced by their parents.
Brown& Iyengar, 2008identified that the foundation for academic achievementand parenting style is formed by the attitudes and belief system in parents andtheir children. Pastorelli et al. 2001illustrated that children with authoritarian parents perceived themselves asless efficacious for self-directed learning. Baumrind, 2012stated taht children are enhanced by authoritative parents and show higher socialdevelopment academic, competence, self-perception, and mental health comparedto children with authoritarian and permissive parents. Baumrind (1967) conducteda study on more than 100 preschool-age children.
Using naturalisticobservation, parental interviews and other research methods, he identified fourimportant dimensions of parenting. These are disciplinary strategies, warmthand nurturance, communication styles, expectations of maturity and control. Basedon these dimensions, Baumrind came up with the concept of parenting styles and suggestedthat the majority of parents display one of three qualitatively different parentingstyles (Cherry, 2012). These are: Authoritative Parenting Style which is highestin all of the dimensions mentioned above, that is disciplinary strategies,warmth and nurturance, communication styles, and expectations of maturity andcontrol; and Authoritarian Parenting Style which is high in disciplinarystrategies and expectations of maturity and control but low in warmth andnurturance and communication styles; Permissive Parenting Style which is highin warmth and nurturance but low in terms of disciplinary strategies,communication styles, and expectations of control and maturity. The relevance of these stylesand practices in the socialisation and developmental outcomes of childrencannot be overemphasized.
This is because, parents across cultures have uniquesocialization goals, such as helping their child become an autonomous,self-reliant individual or a socially interdependent individual. Thesocialization goals shape parents’ everyday interactions and parenting styleswith their children. Parents in Western cultures endorse autonomoussocialization goals that focus on helping their children become independent,competitive, and self-expressive, while parents in Asian cultures emphasize obedience,respect, and social interdependence (Keller & Otto, 2009; Barnhart et. al,2013). That is, parents are more likely to adopt parenting styles and practicesthat are in sync with their socialization goals and societal values. Barnhartet al. (2013) observed that authoritative parenting style which places a highemphasis on development of autonomy in children is consistent with thesocialization goals of Western parents. Milevsky, Schlechter, Klem, andKehl (2008) examined patterns of maternal and paternal parenting styles amongparents of adolescents, and explored adolescent well-being as a function ofparenting style.
Parenting styles were assessed for maternal and paternal stylesseparately using the acceptance/involvement and the strictness.AuthoritativeParenting Style:Baumrind, 1991; Abesha,2012 explained that authoritative parenting is a parenting style characterized byhigh demands and high responsiveness. Authoritative parentsare responsive to the child’s emotional needs while having high standards. Theyset limits and are very consistent in enforcing boundaries. Thistype of parenting style consists of a constellation of parental characteristicsof high standards, such as high emotional attachment and support to children,encouragement of a two-way communication between parents and children, andconsistent implementation of the rules established by parents.
They consistently monitor conductand use non-punitive method or discipline when rules are violated. Sociallyresponsible mature behaviour is expected and reinforced. Authoritative parentsare also warm and supportive. They encourage and validate the child’sindividual point of view, and recognize the rights of both parents andchildren”. Authoritative parenting style therefore creates warm, loving and mutualunderstanding in the family and foster stable children’s behaviour and personality(Glasgow, Dornbusch, Troyer, Steinberg, & Ritter, 1997; Talib, 2011; Hong &Hong, 2012). Tiller, Garrison, Block, Cramer & Tiller, 2003stated that this democratic approach acknowledges the child’sneed for both discipline and individuality that promoting an open relationshipwhere problems can be discussed and resolved together as a team. Steinberg,Eisengart, & Cauffman, 2006 identified that adolescents with authoritativeparents reported higher grades in school performance than adolescents withneglectful parents, and demonstrated stronger school orientation, school engagement,and bonding with teachers than adolescents with neglectful parents.
Grobman, 2003; Seid & Mikre,2008 defined that the authoritativeparents control the activities of the children in a logical and reasonable way.These parent are demanding and accepting, they appreciate oral discussions,explain the children the logic behind their plans, and solicits theirobjections when they disagree .Bersg,2011; Zupancic,Podlesek, & Kavcic, 2004 illustrated that authoritative parents pay attention tochildren’s compliance and set standard rules while providing autonomy tochildren. They acknowledge their kids’ perspective, provide them freedom inchoice making and empower their children’s’ opinion in family matter. Thisstyle is considered perfect for all family units regardless of the ethnicitycontrasts.
AuthoritarianParenting Style Kang & Moore, 2011; Hong,2012 explained that authoritarian parenting follows a rather dictatorial styleinvolving the highest degree of control on children and very low levels ofwarmth. Parents who adopt such styles expect strong obedience from theirchildren and favor punitive discipline in response to acts of rebellion. Areepattamannil,2010; Hong, 2012 identified that authoritarian parents are usually foundsetting strict rules to abide by and monitoring their child’s time as well astheir activities during the day and night. Moreover, the use of thisauthoritarian style precludes effective discussion, of any sort, betweenparents and children, which places more pressure on the children than any otherparenting style.
Talib et al. (2011) explainedthat parents with this type of parenting style as highly demanding anunresponsive. These parents attempt to mold and control the behavior andattitudes of their children according to a set of standards. They tend toemphasize obedience, respect for authority, and order. Berg, 2011 stated that authoritarianparents also discourage verbal give-and-take with children, expecting rules tobe followed without further explanation. These parents oblige compliance andset elevated requirements. They focus on success aspects and love is conditionalwith achievement.
They are less nurturing than the other two styles ofparenting. Abesha (2012) studied that authoritarianstyle of parenting is marked by parental behaviours that are highly restrictiveand very demanding. It is high in control and maturity demands, but low innurturance and bidirectional communication between parents and children.
Authoritarian parents constrain their children’s independence and they wanttheir children to follow strict parental rules and orders without any questionby threatening severe punishment if children violate these rules and orders. Karavalis, 2003 observed that in thisauthoritarian parenting style, children are expected to follow strict rules establishedby the parents. Failure to follow such rules usually results in punishment.Authoritarian parents fail to explain the reasoning behind these rules. Ifasked to explain, the parent might simply reply, “Because I said so.
“These parents have high demands, but are not responsive to their children. Inaddition, these parents are usually obedience and status oriented, and theyalways expect their orders to be obeyed without explanation. Zupancic et al., 2004 explainedthat authoritarian parents exhibit unfriendly attitude with their children anddemand them to follow decisions and rules without any argument. Authoritarianparents restrain children’s self-expression and freedom desires, and usepower-assertive techniques (commands, love withdrawal, threatsand physicalforce) to achieve what they want from their children. Huver,Otten, Vries & Engels, 2010 said that an authoritarian parenting style isunder the dimensions of demandingness which it involve parental, obedience,conformity ,controls and the need to respect parental authority.
PermissiveParenting StyleKang &Moore, 2011stated that permissive parenting is characterized by low expectations ofcontrol and maturity, and disciplinary strategies over children, aiming for highlevels of warmth. The parents are non-restrictive and exhibit high levels ofresponsiveness. Unlike authoritarian parents, punishment is very rarely used inpermissive homes and children are commonly given greater opportunity to maketheir own decisions in life (Kang &Moore, 2011). Verenikina, Vialle &Lysaght, 2011 identified that being more responsive than demanding, parents ofthis style have relatively low expectations for their children, setting veryfew rules. They often take a very casual and easy-going approach toward theirchildren, opening up conversations and subsequently developing warmer relationshipsbetween them. Supervision and bi-directional communication between parents andchildren are low. Zupancic et al.
, 2004 explainedthat permissive parents follow a tolerant approach for the sake of children’ssocialization. These parents mostly ignore misconduct displayed by children.These parents does not maintain control over child’s conduct, but they exhibita tolerant and supportive attitude. Rossman & Rea, 2005 describedthat permissive parents allow their children to experience a high level offreedom and do not impose rules and regulation to restrain their practices,unless physical harm is expected. Berg, 2011 defined thatpermissive parents demand little or almost nothing from their children andmaintain a friendly interrelation. In 2011 Nancyidentified that parent of permissive parenting style do not respond and controltoward their children.
These parents are preoccupied with their own problemswithout discharging the responsibilities as parents. Children who are raised bypermissive parenting style are not able to control themselves, impulsive andless self-reliant. However, they are happier and speedy recovery from a stressor crisis situation as compared with children who grew up with authoritarian.