Assessment Assignment – Short answer Assignments may include short answerquestions or longer answer questions and are designed to test how you applyyour knowledge into a real-world situation. All assignments are completed as a Microsoft Word document and aresubmitted to an assessor through My eCampus. Your assessor is looking for how you applyyour knowledge and how you think critically about the topic area.1.

       Itis important to have a sound knowledge of anatomical terminology as you willcontinue to apply this knowledge to your other fitness units in thisprogram.  Please describe each of thefollowing anatomical terminologies and give an example. (Word limit 20-50 words per anatomical terminology) Terminology Description Example Anatomical position Describes the position when the body is erect. This includes when the arms at the sides and the palms facing forward. This anatomical position is important in anatomy because it is the position of reference. N/A Superior Means “above” in Latin, therefore describes something that is above another. The knee is superior to the ankle. Inferior Means “Below” in Latin, therefore describes something that is below another.

The ankle is inferior to the knee. Proximal Situated nearer to the centre of the body, or to the point of attachment. The knee is proximal to the ankle. Distal Situated away from the centre of the body or from the point of attachment.

The elbow is distal to the shoulder. Lateral Away from the centre of the body. The shoulder is lateral to the neck Medial Towards the centre of the body.

The hand is medial to the stomach Superficial Towards the surface of the body. The skin is superficial to the bones Deep Away from the surface of the body. The heart is deep in the rib cage. Sagittal Vertical plane that separates the body into right and left parts.

N/A Frontal Another vertical plane that separates the body into anterior and posterior parts. N/A Horizontal Also known as The Transverse plane, divides the body horizontally into superior and inferior parts. N/A  2.       Asa personal trainer, it is critical that you have an understanding of themusculoskeletal system and how muscles work.

 In the following table, record a brief description of each term, andprovide an example of joints involved and an exercise that is involved in thismovement. (Word limit 20 for eachmovement term) Movement term Description Joint Exercise Flexion The action of bending a joint to decrease the angle. Knee Forward lunges Extension Straightening movement that increases the angle of a joint. Knee Leg extensions Abduction To increase the angle of a limb away from the body’s frontal plane.

Hip Straight leg raises on side Adduction To decrease the angle of a limb away from the body’s frontal plane Hip Cable hip adduction Retraction   Movement towards the centre of the body Scapula Single arm dumbbell rows Protraction Movement away from the centre of the body Shoulder Bench press  3.       Thestructure of the human body is made up of six levels of organisation.  Please describe each of the levels oforganisation in the following table. (Wordlimit: 30-50 for each level) Structure of the human body Description Molecular  level A molecule is the smallest particle in a chemical element or compound with similar chemical properties. They are made up of atoms that are held together. These bonds form through sharing and exchanging electrons between each other. Cellular level Cells are the smallest structural and functional unit of every living organism, which is usually microscopic. Made up of cytoplasm and a nucleus covered by a membrane  Tissue level A tissue is an ensemble of similar cells (but not necessarily identical) from the same origin that together carry out a specific function.

Organ level Organs are a collaboration of different tissue structures that work together for a common role. Body System level Two or more organs work together with tissues to perform important actions for the body. Some organs can be part of more than one body systems, if they are capable of serving more than one function.  4.       Duringexercise, the major muscles are responsible for movement.  In the following table, please define each ofthe terms importance in musculoskeletal movement during a BICEP CURL.

Terms Definition Muscle/s Agonist / Prime mover The muscle that is primarily responsible for movement. Bicep Antagonist This muscle does the opposite of the agonist, when the agonist contracts the antagonist relaxes to allow free movement. Triceps Synergist This muscle assists the agonist, either helping with movement or stabilizing the joint. Brachioradialis and brachialis Fixator This is the movement in the muscle that stabilises the origin of the agonist and the joint that the origin spans in order to aid the agonist function correctly. Rotator cuff 5.

       Thereare three types of muscle contractions. Each one is listed in the following table.  Please describe each of these musclecontractions.

(Word limit is 50 words permuscle contraction) Contractions Description Isotonic The load remains the same as the muscle changes length. There are two types of Isotonic contractions: Concentric- When the muscle shortens, Example, bicep curl. Eccentric- When the muscle lengthens. Example, Down phase of a squat.    Isokinetic An isokinetic contraction is when there is constant velocity with the shortening action while the muscle changes length.

  Isometric Isometric contractions occur when the length of the muscle stays constant while the amount of tension increases. Such as holding an objects in front of your body.    6.       Thehuman body is composed of four types of tissue.

 Each one is listed in the following table.  Please describe each of these types of tissue.(Word limit is 50 words per tissue type) Types of tissue Description Epithelial This tissue lines the cavities and surfaces of blood vessels and organs all over the body. Functions include secretion, selective absorption, protection, trans-cellular transport.

Connective This tissue is found all through the skeletal system and responsible for binding structures together and other functions such as fill up spaces, provide support and protection, and store fat.  Muscular : Smooth, Cardiac and Skeletal Smooth muscle tissues are located in organ walls such as the stomach and intestines. When this muscle contracts, it aids these organs perform their function.

Skeletal muscle tissue is connected to the bone. Skeletal muscles contract to execute bone movement. This is a voluntary action. Cardiac muscle can only be found within the walls of the heart. When this muscle contracts it causes the heart beats and simultaneously pumps blood around the body.

These contracts are involuntary.  Nervous Specialized tissue that forms nerves, brain, and spinal cord. Conduct electrical and chemical messages along cells called neurons.

 7.       Theoperation of the different human body systems and how they work togethercontributes to a healthy body.  Pleaseprovide a short comment on how each of the systems listed in the followingtable contributes to a healthy body. (Wordlimit is 30-50 words for each system) Body system Contribution Cardiovascular This system is responsible for moving blood throughout the body and also suppling muscles and cells with the correct amount of oxygen and nutrients while also removing waste. This supports the muscles during exercise and rest. This system is made up of the heart, blood, and blood vessels.

  Musculoskeletal A body system that aids the body with form, stability and movement. This system is made up of bones, muscles, cartilage, tendons, ligaments and joints. The muscles are usually paired up with an opposing muscle.

Such as the bicep with the tricep muscles, as one contracts the opposing muscle relaxes.   Nervous The nervous system is a complex network of nerves and cells that carry messages to and from the brain and spinal cord to various parts of the body that contribute to muscle function. The nervous system includes both the Central nervous system (Spinal cord and the brain) and Peripheral nervous system (Mainly made up of nerves). Digestive The digestive system is a group of organs working together to convert food into energy and basic nutrients to feed the entire body. Within this system there are several important accessory organs that help your body to digest food.

  Respiratory The human respiratory system is a series of organs responsible for taking in oxygen and energy stored within food and supplies it to the muscles while also expelling carbon dioxide. The primary organs of the respiratory system are lungs, which carry out this exchange of gases as we breathe.    8.       Thenervous system plays an important role in innervating the musculoskeletalsystem.

 Describe each of the followingterms. (Words limit is 50 words for eachterm) Nervous system Description Nerves Receptors in muscles provide the brain with information about body position and movement, which then controls the contraction of skeletal muscle. Nerve impulse The nerve impulse is the body’s quickest way of controlling and maintaining homeostasis. It is a wave of electrical activity that passes through neurons to activate muscle contractions. Stretch Reflex Arc The stretch reflex is an automatic response the body has in relation to a stretch stimulus in a muscle designed to prevent muscles tearing by being over stretched. When a muscle spindle is stretched, an impulse is sent to the spinal cord, and this prompts an almost instant response that makes the muscle contract,             8b.   The peripheral nervous system is broken into two branches – the somatic and the autonomic nervous systems. Describe therole of the nervous system in exercise.

 In your response, you will need to describe what the nervous system doesto the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems during these types ofexercise. (200-word limit)  Nervous system Role on the type of training Somatic Nervous System Consists of two types of nerve fibres, sensory and motor neurons. Sensory neurons send sensory information to the CNS. Nerve fibres called Motor neurons send motor information to skeletal muscle to produce both voluntary and reflex movements which cause skeletal muscles to contract.

The muscles required to breathe are also controlled by motor neurons. This system is usually controlled voluntarily however the process of a movement occurring is coordinated subconsciously. For example you don’t need to actively coordinate contraction and relaxation of muscles if you want to move from point A to point B but the decision to move is voluntary.     Autonomic Nervous System This system is divided into the sympathetic division and parasympathetic division. This system is responsible for controlling smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands but not skeletal muscle. The autonomic nervous system works by either increasing or decreasing activity in a given location. In contrast to the somatic system, the autonomic system functions completely involuntarily.

       9.       Theskeletal system is fundamentally important as it provides the body with itsoverall structure.  Please complete the followingtable. Question Answer  Name four types of bones. Flat bone, short bones, long bones and irregular bones.

Name one bone from each of the different types identified in question a. Flat bone: Scapulae. Short bones: Ankles. Long bone: Tibia. Irregular bone: Vertebrae. For the bones listed in question b, list the major ligaments that attach to those bones.

Scapula: Coraco-acromial, suprascapular and spinoglenoid Ankle: deltoid, anterior talofibular, posterior talofibular and calcaneofibular Tibia: Medial collateral, posterior tibiofibular and anterior tibiobular. Vertebrae: ligamentum flavum, anterior longitudinal and posterior longitudinal.  10.   Describewhere the following bony landmarks are located Landmark Description Acromion Bony process and the most lateral point of the scapula. It is a extension of the scapular spine that communicates with the clavicle Inferior Angle of the Scapula The most inferior point on the scapula where the medial and lateral edges of This joint meet. It is required for locating the subscapular skinfold Iliac crest Most superior border of the ilium. It is required for precise location of measurement of the waist and hip ratio.  11.

           The cardiovascular system is one of themost important physiological systems in the capacity to exercise.  Please complete the series of questions thatfollow. a)     Provide a brief physiological role of blood inthe human body during exercise.

Responsible for transporting oxygen and nutrients to organs and muscles around the body. When delivering nutrients, the blood then collects waste products –such as carbon dioxide— and expels them. Aerobic training can have an increased effect of the amount of blood volume and in the amount of oxygen pumped around the body.      b)     Describe the links between oxygen demands duringincreasingly intense exercise.

Intense exercise places a lot of demands on the bod, expecially the cardiovascular system. For the sake of oxygen demand to be met, the heart must increase the amount of blood being pumped the body per minute. This process is described as cardiac output. Cardiac output = Heart rate multiplied by stroke volume.       c)      Describe the relationship between exerciseintensity and the cardiovascular system. During aerobic exercise, cardiac output increases to allow blood to travel around the body faster, this helps with delivering oxygen to muscles to meet oxygen demands. When exercise intensity increases so does the heart rate. This places more demands on the heart as more oxygen is needed for skeletal muscles to function.

After periods of endurance training, the heart can become stronger and in relation have an impact of increased stroke volume while exercising.    12.   Describethe respiratory mechanism involved in breathing.  In your response, you will need to describewhat happens during inspiration and expiration. (Word limit 200 words) The lungs have the ability to inhale and exhale an amount of volume of air.

This amount of volume can change as a result of exercise and fitness levels. Inspiration: When you inhale, your diaphragm contracts and it moves downward. This action expands the lungs and increased the space in the chest cavity. Other muscles can help with expanding the chest cavity, such as the intercostal muscles which are located between your ribs. They contract to pull your rib cage up and outwards when you inhale. Expiration: This occurs because of the elastic properties within the lungs, as well as the internal intercostal muscles that lower the rib cage which then causes a reduction of thoracic volume.

When you exhale the thoracic diaphragm relaxes, it causes the tissue to rise superiorly and put weight on the lungs to expel carbon dioxide.      13.   Thefollowing figure shows a range of different indices associated withrespiration.

 Define each of these terms. Inspiratory reserve volume It is the maximal volume that can be inhaled from the end-inspiratory level. Functional residual capacity It is the volume in the lungs at the end-expiratory position. Vital capacity It is the volume of air breathed out after the deepest inhalation.

Tidal volume Is it the volume of air moved into or out of the lungs during quiet breathing. Expiratory reserve volume It is the maximal volume of air that can be exhaled from the end-expiratory position. Residual volume It is the volume of air remaining in the lungs after a maximal exhalation.  14.   Energysystems are important during physical activity.  Briefly describe the major energy pathwaysoperating during aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. Ensure you mention fuelsources, waste products and durations.

(Wordlimit 50 words) Aerobic system is used when there is low to moderate intensity exercise is occurring, the types of fuel it uses to power this is carbohydrates, fat and protein. During this process H2O and CO2 are produced and expelled via sweat and expiration. Recovery time is same time frame it takes for the person’s body to ingest and digest these food sources mentioned above.  An exercise example: One hour bike ride. Anaerobic system is used when the body experiences moderate to very high intensity exercise. It can range from explosive 1-10 exercises like a one rep max bench press or any exercise that is experienced up to 3 minutes like the 200m sprint. Fuel supplies that are used are creatine phosphate for the high intensity exercise and carbohydrates in the form of glycogen and glucose for moderate exercises.

Recovery time for the high intensity exercise is 30 seconds to 2 minutes while the moderate exercise recovery time can range from 20 minutes to 2 hours.      15.   Theprocesses of thermoregulation plays an important role in the cooling down andwarming up of the human body.  Describewhat thermoregulation is and its role in warming up and cooling down. (Word limit 50-100 words) Thermoregulation is a process that allows your body to maintain its core internal temperature. All thermoregulation mechanisms are designed to return your body to homeostasis.

This is a state of equilibrium. Most body heat is generated in the deep organs (especially the liver, brain, and heart) and in contraction of skeletal muscles. When your internal temperature changes, sensors in your central nervous system send messages to your hypothalamus. It reacts to this and sends signals to various organs and systems in your body. They respond with a variety of mechanisms.

If your body needs to cool down, these mechanisms include: Sweating and vasodilatation. If your body needs to warm up, these mechanisms include: Vasoconstriction, thermogenesis and hormonal thermogenesis.  16.   Describethe role of exercise in promoting ideal posture, and explain how ideal postureprevents the development of pathological postures.  In your response, you will need to considerspinal curves, muscle balance, and joint alignment.

(Word limit 100-150 words) The best way to improve your posture is to focus on exercises that strengthen your core — the abdominal and low back muscles that connect to your spine and pelvis. Some of these muscles move your torso by flexing, extending, or rotating your spine. Others stabilize your pelvis and spine in a natural, neutral position. Following these certain exercised helps prevent muscular imbalances that either become tightened or weakened causing the skeleton to drift coughing joint alignment issues as well as impact the ideal spinal curve.     17.   Asa personal trainer, understanding the role of the musculoskeletal system isessential.  Complete the following tableon the structure and function of the musculoskeletal system. Question Answer Describe the three main types of muscles in the human body.

Cardiac muscle is found in the heart and is under involuntary control, meaning the nervous system makes the heart beat without conscious thought. A series of diagrams illustrating many of the major skeletal muscles in the human body is shown in the next four pages. When viewing the muscles it helps to see alternate images to get different views on muscles and assist with your understanding. Smooth muscle is located in various internal structures, including the digestive tract, uterus and blood vessels, such as arteries. Smooth muscle is arranged in layered sheets that contract in waves along the length of the structure.

Smooth muscle is also under involuntary control as it happens without our conscious awareness. What is the benefit of using large muscle groups in relation to weight loss? You will get a lot more out of exercise for weight loss if you concentrate on the larger muscle groups like your legs, back and chest. Large muscles have many muscle fibres attached to each motor neuron, while small muscles requiring delicate movements have fewer muscle fibres per motor neuron. The greater the force required, the greater the number of motor units are activated. This means that if a very strong muscular contraction is required, a large amount of neural drive or input is needed.

Hence, body using more energy that leads to more weight loss. List five of the major muscle groups. Abdominal, trapezius, biceps, triceps and gluteus.

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