Assessment

Assignment – Short answer

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Assignments may include short answer
questions or longer answer questions and are designed to test how you apply
your knowledge into a real-world situation. 
All assignments are completed as a Microsoft Word document and are
submitted to an assessor through My eCampus. 
Your assessor is looking for how you apply
your knowledge and how you think critically about the topic area.

1.       It
is important to have a sound knowledge of anatomical terminology as you will
continue to apply this knowledge to your other fitness units in this
program.  Please describe each of the
following anatomical terminologies and give an example. (Word limit 20-50 words per anatomical terminology)

Terminology

Description

Example

Anatomical position

Describes the
position when
the body is erect. This includes when the arms at the sides and the palms facing forward. This anatomical position is important in anatomy
because it is the position of reference.

N/A

Superior

Means
“above” in Latin, therefore describes something that is above another.

The
knee is superior to the ankle.

Inferior

Means
“Below” in Latin, therefore describes something that is below another.

The
ankle is inferior to the knee.

Proximal

Situated
nearer to the centre of the body, or to the point of attachment.

The
knee is proximal to the ankle.

Distal

Situated
away from the centre of the body or from the point of attachment.

The
elbow is distal to the shoulder.

Lateral

Away
from the centre of the body.

The
shoulder is lateral to the neck

Medial

Towards the centre of the body.

The hand is medial to the stomach

Superficial

Towards the surface of the body.

The skin is superficial to the bones

Deep

Away from the surface of the body.

The heart is deep in the rib cage.

Sagittal

Vertical plane that separates the body
into right and left parts.

N/A

Frontal

Another vertical plane that separates the
body into anterior and posterior parts.

N/A

Horizontal

Also known as The Transverse plane,
divides the body horizontally into superior and inferior parts.

N/A

 

2.       As
a personal trainer, it is critical that you have an understanding of the
musculoskeletal system and how muscles work. 
In the following table, record a brief description of each term, and
provide an example of joints involved and an exercise that is involved in this
movement. (Word limit 20 for each
movement term)

Movement term

Description

Joint

Exercise

Flexion

The action of bending a joint to decrease
the angle.

Knee

Forward lunges

Extension

Straightening movement that increases the
angle of a joint.

Knee

Leg extensions

Abduction

To increase the
angle of a limb away from the body’s frontal plane.

Hip

Straight leg raises on side

Adduction

To decrease the angle of a limb away from
the body’s frontal plane

Hip

Cable hip adduction

Retraction  

Movement towards the centre of the body

Scapula

Single arm dumbbell rows

Protraction

Movement away from the centre of the body

Shoulder

Bench press

 

3.       The
structure of the human body is made up of six levels of organisation.  Please describe each of the levels of
organisation in the following table. (Word
limit: 30-50 for each level)

Structure of the human
body

Description

Molecular  level

A molecule is the smallest particle in a
chemical element or compound with similar chemical properties. They are made
up of atoms that are held together. These bonds form through sharing and
exchanging electrons between each other.

Cellular level

Cells are the smallest structural and
functional unit of every living organism, which is usually microscopic. Made
up of cytoplasm and a nucleus covered by a membrane

 Tissue level

A tissue is an ensemble of similar cells
(but not necessarily identical) from the same origin that together carry out
a specific function.

Organ level

Organs are a collaboration of different tissue
structures that work together for a common role.

Body System level

Two or more organs work together with
tissues to perform important actions for the body. Some organs can be part of
more than one body systems, if they are capable of serving more than one
function.

 

4.       During
exercise, the major muscles are responsible for movement.  In the following table, please define each of
the terms importance in musculoskeletal movement during a BICEP CURL.

Terms

Definition

Muscle/s

Agonist / Prime mover

The muscle that is primarily responsible for
movement.

Bicep

Antagonist

This muscle does the opposite of the
agonist, when the agonist contracts the antagonist relaxes to allow free
movement.

Triceps

Synergist

This muscle assists the agonist, either
helping with movement or stabilizing the joint.

Brachioradialis and brachialis

Fixator

This is the movement in the muscle that
stabilises the origin of the agonist and the joint that the origin spans in
order to aid the agonist function correctly.

Rotator cuff

5.       There
are three types of muscle contractions. 
Each one is listed in the following table.  Please describe each of these muscle
contractions. (Word limit is 50 words per
muscle contraction)

Contractions

Description

Isotonic

The load remains the same as the muscle
changes length. There are two types of Isotonic contractions:
Concentric- When the muscle shortens, Example, bicep curl.
Eccentric- When the muscle lengthens. Example, Down phase of a squat. 
 

Isokinetic

An isokinetic contraction is when there
is constant velocity with the shortening action while the muscle changes
length.
 

Isometric

Isometric contractions occur when the
length of the muscle stays constant while the amount of tension increases. Such
as holding an objects in front of your body.
 

 

6.       The
human body is composed of four types of tissue. 
Each one is listed in the following table.  Please describe each of these types of tissue.
(Word limit is 50 words per tissue type)

Types of tissue

Description

Epithelial

This tissue lines the cavities and surfaces of blood vessels and organs
all over the body. Functions include secretion, selective absorption,
protection, trans-cellular transport.

Connective

This
tissue is found all through the skeletal system and responsible for binding
structures together and other functions such as fill up spaces, provide
support and protection, and store fat.

 Muscular :
Smooth, Cardiac and Skeletal

Smooth
muscle tissues are located in organ walls such as the stomach and intestines.
When this muscle contracts, it aids these organs perform their function.
Skeletal muscle tissue is connected to the bone. Skeletal muscles contract to
execute bone movement. This is a voluntary action.
Cardiac
muscle can only be found within the walls of the heart. When this muscle
contracts it causes the heart beats and simultaneously pumps blood around the
body. These contracts are involuntary.

 Nervous

Specialized
tissue that forms nerves, brain, and spinal cord. Conduct electrical and
chemical messages along cells called neurons.

 

7.       The
operation of the different human body systems and how they work together
contributes to a healthy body.  Please
provide a short comment on how each of the systems listed in the following
table contributes to a healthy body. (Word
limit is 30-50 words for each system)

Body system

Contribution

Cardiovascular

This system is responsible for moving
blood throughout the body and also suppling muscles and cells with the
correct amount of oxygen and nutrients while also removing waste. This
supports the muscles during exercise and rest. This system is made up of the heart,
blood, and blood vessels.
 

Musculoskeletal

A body system that aids the body with
form, stability and movement. This system is made up of bones, muscles,
cartilage, tendons, ligaments and joints. The muscles are usually paired up
with an opposing muscle. Such as the bicep with the tricep muscles, as one
contracts the opposing muscle relaxes.
 

Nervous

The nervous system is a complex network
of nerves and cells that carry messages to and from the brain and spinal cord
to various parts of the body that contribute to muscle function. The nervous
system includes both the Central nervous system (Spinal cord and the brain)
and Peripheral nervous system (Mainly made up of nerves).

Digestive

The digestive system is a group of organs
working together to convert food into energy and basic nutrients to feed the
entire body. Within this system there are several important accessory organs
that help your body to digest food.
 

Respiratory

The human
respiratory system is a series of organs responsible for taking in oxygen and
energy stored within food and supplies it to the muscles while also expelling
carbon dioxide. The primary organs of the respiratory system are lungs, which
carry out this exchange of gases as we breathe.
 

 

8.       The
nervous system plays an important role in innervating the musculoskeletal
system.  Describe each of the following
terms. (Words limit is 50 words for each
term)

Nervous system

Description

Nerves

Receptors in muscles
provide the brain with information about body position and movement, which
then controls the contraction of skeletal muscle.

Nerve impulse

The nerve impulse is the body’s quickest
way of controlling and maintaining homeostasis. It is a wave of electrical
activity that passes through neurons to activate muscle contractions.

Stretch Reflex Arc

The stretch reflex is an automatic
response the body has in relation to a stretch stimulus in a muscle designed
to prevent muscles tearing by being over stretched. When a muscle spindle is
stretched, an impulse is sent to the spinal cord, and this prompts an almost
instant response that makes the muscle contract,           

 

8b.   The peripheral nervous system is broken in
to two branches – the somatic and the autonomic nervous systems. Describe the
role of the nervous system in exercise. 
In your response, you will need to describe what the nervous system does
to the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems during these types of
exercise. (200-word limit)

 

Nervous system

Role on the type of
training

Somatic Nervous System

Consists
of two types of nerve fibres, sensory and motor neurons.
Sensory
neurons send sensory information to the CNS. Nerve fibres called
Motor
neurons send motor information to skeletal muscle to produce both voluntary
and reflex movements which cause skeletal muscles to contract. The muscles required
to breathe are also controlled by motor neurons. This system is usually
controlled voluntarily however the process of a movement occurring is coordinated
subconsciously. For example you don’t need to actively coordinate contraction
and relaxation of muscles if you want to move from point A to point B but the
decision to move is voluntary.
 
 

Autonomic Nervous System

This
system is divided into the sympathetic division and parasympathetic division.
This system is responsible for controlling smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and
glands but not skeletal muscle. The autonomic nervous system works by either
increasing or decreasing activity in a given location. In contrast to the
somatic system, the autonomic system functions completely involuntarily.
 
 
 

 

9.       The
skeletal system is fundamentally important as it provides the body with its
overall structure.  Please complete the following
table.

Question

Answer

 Name four types of bones.

Flat bone, short bones, long bones and
irregular bones.

Name one bone from each of the
different types identified in question a.

Flat bone: Scapulae.
Short bones: Ankles.
Long bone: Tibia.
Irregular bone: Vertebrae.

For the bones listed in question b,
list the major ligaments that attach to those bones.

Scapula: Coraco-acromial, suprascapular
and spinoglenoid
Ankle: deltoid, anterior talofibular, posterior talofibular and calcaneofibular
Tibia: Medial collateral, posterior tibiofibular and anterior tibiobular.
Vertebrae: ligamentum flavum, anterior longitudinal and posterior
longitudinal.

 

10.   Describe
where the following bony landmarks are located

Landmark

Description

Acromion

Bony process and the most lateral point of the scapula. It is a extension
of the scapular spine that communicates with the clavicle

Inferior Angle of the Scapula

The most inferior
point on the scapula where the medial and lateral edges of
This joint meet. It
is required for locating the subscapular skinfold

Iliac crest

Most superior border
of the ilium. It is required for precise location of measurement of the waist
and hip ratio.

 

11.           The cardiovascular system is one of the
most important physiological systems in the capacity to exercise.  Please complete the series of questions that
follow.

 

a)     
Provide a brief physiological role of blood in
the human body during exercise.

Responsible for transporting oxygen and
nutrients to organs and muscles around the body. When delivering nutrients,
the blood then collects waste products –such as carbon dioxide— and expels
them. Aerobic training can have an increased effect of the amount of blood
volume and in the amount of oxygen pumped around the body.
 
 

 

b)     
Describe the links between oxygen demands during
increasingly intense exercise.

Intense exercise places a lot of demands
on the bod, expecially the cardiovascular system. For the sake of oxygen
demand to be met, the heart must increase the amount of blood being pumped
the body per minute. This process is described as cardiac output.

Cardiac output = Heart rate multiplied by stroke volume.
 
 

 

 

c)      
Describe the relationship between exercise
intensity and the cardiovascular system.

During aerobic exercise, cardiac output
increases to allow blood to travel around the body faster, this helps with
delivering oxygen to muscles to meet oxygen demands. When exercise intensity
increases so does the heart rate. This places more demands on the heart as
more oxygen is needed for skeletal muscles to function. After periods of
endurance training, the heart can become stronger and in relation have an impact
of increased stroke volume while exercising.
 

 

12.   Describe
the respiratory mechanism involved in breathing.  In your response, you will need to describe
what happens during inspiration and expiration. (Word limit 200 words)

The lungs have the ability to inhale and
exhale an amount of volume of air. This amount of volume can change as a
result of exercise and fitness levels.

Inspiration: When you inhale, your diaphragm contracts and it moves downward.
This action expands the lungs and increased the space in the chest cavity.
Other muscles can help with expanding the chest cavity, such as the intercostal
muscles which are located between your ribs. They contract to pull your rib
cage up and outwards when you inhale.

Expiration: This occurs because of the elastic properties within the lungs,
as well as the internal intercostal muscles that lower the rib cage which
then causes a reduction of thoracic volume. When you exhale the thoracic
diaphragm relaxes, it causes the tissue to rise superiorly and put weight on
the lungs to expel carbon dioxide.
 
 

 

13.   The
following figure shows a range of different indices associated with
respiration.  Define each of these terms.

Inspiratory reserve volume

It is the maximal volume that can be
inhaled from the end-inspiratory level.

Functional residual capacity

It is the volume in the lungs at the
end-expiratory position.

Vital capacity

It is the volume of air breathed out
after the deepest inhalation.

Tidal volume

Is it the volume of air moved into or out
of the lungs during quiet breathing.

Expiratory reserve volume

It is the maximal volume of air that can
be exhaled from the end-expiratory position.

Residual volume

It is the volume of air remaining in the
lungs after a maximal exhalation.

 

14.   Energy
systems are important during physical activity.  Briefly describe the major energy pathways
operating during aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. Ensure you mention fuel
sources, waste products and durations. (Word
limit 50 words)

Aerobic system is used when there is low
to moderate intensity exercise is occurring, the types of fuel it uses to
power this is carbohydrates, fat and protein. During this process H2O and CO2
are produced and expelled via sweat and expiration. Recovery time is same
time frame it takes for the person’s body to ingest and digest these food
sources mentioned above.  An exercise
example: One hour bike ride.

Anaerobic system is used when the body experiences moderate to very high
intensity exercise. It can range from explosive 1-10 exercises like a one rep
max bench press or any exercise that is experienced up to 3 minutes like the
200m sprint. Fuel supplies that are used are creatine phosphate for the high
intensity exercise and carbohydrates in the form of glycogen and glucose for
moderate exercises. Recovery time for the high intensity exercise is 30
seconds to 2 minutes while the moderate exercise recovery time can range from
20 minutes to 2 hours.
 
 

 

15.   The
processes of thermoregulation plays an important role in the cooling down and
warming up of the human body.  Describe
what thermoregulation is and its role in warming up and cooling down. (Word limit 50-100 words)

Thermoregulation is a process that allows
your body to maintain its core internal temperature. All thermoregulation
mechanisms are designed to return your body to homeostasis. This is a state
of equilibrium. Most body heat is generated in the deep organs (especially
the liver, brain, and heart) and in contraction of skeletal muscles.
When your internal temperature
changes, sensors in your central nervous system send messages to your
hypothalamus. It reacts to this and sends signals to various organs and
systems in your body. They respond with a variety of mechanisms.
If your body needs
to cool down, these mechanisms include: Sweating and vasodilatation.
If your body needs to warm up, these mechanisms include: Vasoconstriction,
thermogenesis and hormonal thermogenesis.

 

16.   Describe
the role of exercise in promoting ideal posture, and explain how ideal posture
prevents the development of pathological postures.  In your response, you will need to consider
spinal curves, muscle balance, and joint alignment. (Word limit 100-150 words)

The best way to improve your posture is
to focus on exercises that strengthen your core — the abdominal and low back
muscles that connect to your spine and pelvis. Some of these muscles move
your torso by flexing, extending, or rotating your spine. Others stabilize
your pelvis and spine in a natural, neutral position. Following these certain
exercised helps prevent muscular imbalances that either become tightened or
weakened causing the skeleton to drift coughing joint alignment issues as well
as impact the ideal spinal curve.
 
 

17.   As
a personal trainer, understanding the role of the musculoskeletal system is
essential.  Complete the following table
on the structure and function of the musculoskeletal system.

Question

Answer

Describe the three main types of
muscles in the human body.

Cardiac muscle is found in the heart and
is under involuntary control, meaning the nervous system makes the heart beat
without conscious thought.
A series of diagrams illustrating many of
the major skeletal muscles in the human body is shown in the next four pages.
When viewing the muscles it helps to see alternate images to get different
views on muscles and assist with your understanding. Smooth muscle is located
in various internal structures, including the digestive tract, uterus and
blood vessels, such as arteries. Smooth muscle is arranged in layered sheets
that contract in waves along the length of the structure. Smooth muscle is
also under involuntary control as it happens without our conscious awareness.

What is the benefit of using large
muscle groups in relation to weight loss?

You will get a lot more out of exercise
for weight loss if you concentrate on the larger muscle groups like your
legs, back and chest. Large muscles have many muscle fibres attached to each
motor neuron, while small muscles requiring delicate movements have fewer
muscle fibres per motor neuron. The greater the force required, the greater
the number of motor units are activated. This means that if a very strong
muscular contraction is required, a large amount of neural drive or input is
needed. Hence, body using more energy that leads to more weight loss.

List five of the major muscle groups.

Abdominal, trapezius, biceps, triceps and
gluteus.

x

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