Arduino Mega 2560.Arduino Mega is a microcontroller. It has 54 digitalinput/output pins 16 analog inputs, 4 UARTs(hardware serial ports)and a 16 MHzcrystal oscillator. It also has a USB connection, a Power jack, an ICSP headerand a Reset button. The Arduino can be powered by using USB or with an externalpower supply unit. The power source is selected automatically by the Arduino.External (non-USB) power supply can come either from an AC-to-DC adapter(wall-wart) or a battery.

Arduino Mega is used to display the text “Enter the salinedrop rate” on an Android phone so that user can enter number of drops perminute. Arduino also continuously reads the saline rate from the flow sensor.WiFi Module (ESP8266).The WIFI Module is System on Chip (SOC).

It is integrated witha Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocol stack thatcan give any microcontroller access to your WIFI network. The module is highlycost efficient . It provides on-board processing as well as storage capacity thusallowing it to be integrated with sensors.WIFI module is used  inorder to provide connectivity across the world. WiFi connects the Arduino Mega2560 to the software application.Servo Motor.A servo motor is a linear or rotary actuator. It allows exactcontrol of angular/linear position, velocity and acceleration of servo motor.

Amotor is coupled to a sensor for position feedback. It is a self-containedelectrical device. Servo motor rotates parts of a machine with high efficiencyand high precision. The output shaft of the servo motor can be moved to aparticular angle.

The servo motor is used to control the saline flow rate. Theservo motor is able to rotate from 0o to 180o to controlthe flow rate. If the saline flow rate is more than that specified in the commandthen the servo motor rotates anti-clockwise to reduce the flow rate and if theactual flow rate is less than that specified in the command then servo motorrotates clockwise to reduce the gap between the valve and pipe. When actualflow rate is same as the one specified in the command, then servo motor stopsto keep flow rate same.Flow Sensor.Flow sensor consists of two metal wires arranged in parallelvery close to each other. Flow sensor is used to detect the saline flow fromthe saline bottle.

The flow sensor provides a digital pulse each time a certainamount of saline passes through the pipe. The output can easily be connected toa microcontroller for monitoring saline flow.Keypad Matrix.A keypad matrix consists of a set of push buttons or switcheswhich are arranged in a matrix format of rows and columns. These keypads areavailable in different configurations. We have used a 4×4 matrix configuration.

Keypad Matrix isused to take the user inputs. In case Android phone is discharged or is not working,then the user can use Keypad Matrix to provide the saline drop rate.IR Sensor.An Infrared (IR) Sensor is an electronic instrument which isused to sense certain characteristics of its surroundings by either emittingand/or detecting infrared radiation. Infrared (IR) Sensor senses the salinedrops from saline bottle when it reaches a particular critical level.

  After sensing that the saline in the salinebottle has come to a critical level, it transmits a signal to the sensorreceiver.

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