An annual plant complete itswhole life just in one year, starting from impregnation to the maturing ofseeds and dies in one year. Winter annuals sprout for the duration of theautumn and full-grown for the duration of the spring or summer of the subsequentcalendar year. For the creation of materials like paperboard, pulp, derivativesof cellulose and above all paper, the agricultural remains can be used onpriority basis. This will also lead to non-burning of agricultural wastes invarious states like Punjab. This would minimize the pollution caused by burningof agricultural wastes in New Delhi and NCR. Sincethe invention of papermaking the resources of non-wood were applied to manufacturecellulosic products (Atchison and McGovern, 1987).
1.4Non-wood plants Non- wood plants are more economic as comparedto wood and are easy for transportation purpose. The difficulties associatedwith non-wood plants are collection, storage and high ash content. Also theincreasing demand of furniture, construction, paper, cellulose and cellulosederivatives, decreases the availability of wood (Atchison, 1996;McCloskey, 1995; Nick and Emmanuel, 2000).
In early years, the pulp and paper materials manufacturing companies wereusing non-wood as raw materials due to its cost efficiency and availability.The chemical structure of woody and non-woody plants is mostly same. In comparisonsto wood there is very few lignin and fibril in non-wood plants (Atchison,1996; Patt et al.
, 1986). Theusage of non-wood fiber is better way of production of pulp as well as papermaterials (El-Sakhawy et al., 1996) as compared to the clearing of differentkinds of forests. It’s a better option to use non-wood plants as a fiberresource due to their fast growth and capacity of binding their fiberstogether. Its application can also add up to the income of farmers(Rousu, et al., 2002). Theyearly pulp production can’t easily meet its surged claim.
In modern years, theexcessive use of wood resulted in the deforestation. So, now days, non-woodthings were commonly in more interest for environmental industrial utilization(Kissinger, et al., 2007; Jimenez, et al., 1999; Marley, 1991). For the paper and pulp factories, agricultural residues are the chiefraw material for instance Wheat Straw (Martinez, et al.,1994), rice straw, sugarcane bagasse etc.
(Sabharwal and Young, 1996; Saikia, et al., 1997; Jimenez, et al., 1997a & b and Jimenez,et al., 2000). At that point, three chief types of non-woodfibers are agricultural by-products, industrial crops and naturally growingplants (Rowelland Cook, 1998, Svenningsen, et al.
, 1999).Agriculturalby products are the medium quality products with cheap rates also known as secondaryproducts such as rice straw and Wheat Straw (Navaee-Ardeh, et al. 2003, Deniz,et al.
, 2004). The crops like hump, kneaf etc. are industrial crops whichproduce pulp of high quality with high expenditure of raw materials (Kaldor, etal.
1990, Zomers, et al. 1995). Also for the good variety pulps naturallygrowing plants are used and the source of pulp is limited which includes bambooand some grasses like elephant grass, wastes of lawns, other agriculturewastes, industrial, domestic, food and solid wastes (Walsh, 1998, Poudyal,1999, Shatalov, and Pereira, 2002 and Salmela, et al. 2008). The uses byrecycling these wastes proceed as a major source of energy and help to reducepollution (Rajoka, M.I.
, 2005). The remaining products in which lignocellulosesbiomass are present are widely used in fermentation industry as a raw material.Our surrounding is littered by agricultural by products and wastes problems arecaused by agro-based processing (Singh, et al. 2006). Various new practices of cheapercost has been introduced by this work which uses cellulose and cellulosederivatives of agricultural waste.
Some non-wood plants explained below:a) SugarcanebagasseThebotanical name of Sugarcane is Saccharum Officinarum. Sugarcane was cultivated andused for its high sucrose content in various nations. Due to its high sucrosecontents, sugarcane is grown in various nations. The residue of sugarcane is alsoused for various purposes. Some of this waste is burned to heat the sugarremaining operation, some bagasse returned to fields while some of it finds wayinto various furnishing products (Casey, 1980).
It is composed of high bulkywalled fibers and vigor obtained from outer layer and bundle of fibers. The fiberwalls are thick of various lengths and have sharp ends (Ilvessalo-Pfäffli,1995). The bagasse contains 52.
42% cellulose, 21.69% lignin, 73.92% holocellulose, 45.3%?-cellulose, 2.73% ash and, 1.66% ethanol/dichloromethane.
It is used invarious applications like to make printing and writing paper, tissue paper, glassine,grease proof paper etc. (Peng and Simonson, 1992).b) Cotton stalks Thebotanical name of cotton is Goossypium.
Cotton is grown mainly for its fiberbut these are only few uses of plant stem. Cotton stalks can be extremely goodquality source of fiber, but its storage causes a trouble. Stalks meaning asupporting part of a plant e.g. a leaf stem petiole.
Morphologically, cottonstalks fiber and varieties of hardwood fiber are similar. Also it was used forthe manufacturing of high grades of paper (Mobarak, and Nada, 1975). The cottonstalks were external sheets of tree and quite fibrous while newsprint superioritypaper can be made from it. It was a possible resource of unprocessed materialsfor papermaking (Alcaide, et al., 1991).