An annual plant complete its
whole life just in one year, starting from impregnation to the maturing of
seeds and dies in one year. Winter annuals sprout for the duration of the
autumn and full-grown for the duration of the spring or summer of the subsequent
calendar year. For the creation of materials like paperboard, pulp, derivatives
of cellulose and above all paper, the agricultural remains can be used on
priority basis. This will also lead to non-burning of agricultural wastes in
various states like Punjab. This would minimize the pollution caused by burning
of agricultural wastes in New Delhi and NCR. Since
the invention of papermaking the resources of non-wood were applied to manufacture
cellulosic products (Atchison and McGovern, 1987).

1.4
Non-wood plants                                                   

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Non- wood plants are more economic as compared
to wood and are easy for transportation purpose. The difficulties associated
with non-wood plants are collection, storage and high ash content. Also the
increasing demand of furniture, construction, paper, cellulose and cellulose
derivatives, decreases the availability of wood (Atchison, 1996;
McCloskey, 1995; Nick and Emmanuel, 2000). In early years, the pulp and paper materials manufacturing companies were
using non-wood as raw materials due to its cost efficiency and availability.
The chemical structure of woody and non-woody plants is mostly same. In comparisons
to wood there is very few lignin and fibril in non-wood plants (Atchison,
1996; Patt et al., 1986). The
usage of non-wood fiber is better way of production of pulp as well as paper
materials (El-Sakhawy et al., 1996) as compared to the clearing of different
kinds of forests. It’s a better option to use non-wood plants as a fiber
resource due to their fast growth and capacity of binding their fibers
together. Its application can also add up to the income of farmers
(Rousu, et al., 2002). The
yearly pulp production can’t easily meet its surged claim. In modern years, the
excessive use of wood resulted in the deforestation. So, now days, non-wood
things were commonly in more interest for environmental industrial utilization
(Kissinger, et al., 2007; Jimenez, et al., 1999; Marley, 1991). For the paper and pulp factories, agricultural residues are the chief
raw material for instance Wheat Straw (Martinez, et al.,
1994), rice straw, sugarcane bagasse etc.
(Sabharwal and Young, 1996; Saikia, et al., 1997; Jimenez, et al., 1997a & b and Jimenez,
et al., 2000). At that point, three chief types of non-wood
fibers are agricultural by-products, industrial crops and naturally growing
plants (Rowell
and Cook, 1998, Svenningsen, et al., 1999).

Agricultural
by products are the medium quality products with cheap rates also known as secondary
products such as rice straw and Wheat Straw (Navaee-Ardeh, et al. 2003, Deniz,
et al., 2004). The crops like hump, kneaf etc. are industrial crops which
produce pulp of high quality with high expenditure of raw materials (Kaldor, et
al. 1990, Zomers, et al. 1995). Also for the good variety pulps naturally
growing plants are used and the source of pulp is limited which includes bamboo
and some grasses like elephant grass, wastes of lawns, other agriculture
wastes, industrial, domestic, food and solid wastes (Walsh, 1998, Poudyal,
1999, Shatalov, and Pereira, 2002 and Salmela, et al. 2008). The uses by
recycling these wastes proceed as a major source of energy and help to reduce
pollution (Rajoka, M.I., 2005). The remaining products in which lignocelluloses
biomass are present are widely used in fermentation industry as a raw material.
Our surrounding is littered by agricultural by products and wastes problems are
caused by agro-based processing (Singh, et al. 2006). Various new practices of cheaper
cost has been introduced by this work which uses cellulose and cellulose
derivatives of agricultural waste. Some non-wood plants explained below:

a)                 
Sugarcane
bagasse

The
botanical name of Sugarcane is Saccharum Officinarum. Sugarcane was cultivated and
used for its high sucrose content in various nations. Due to its high sucrose
contents, sugarcane is grown in various nations. The residue of sugarcane is also
used for various purposes. Some of this waste is burned to heat the sugar
remaining operation, some bagasse returned to fields while some of it finds way
into various furnishing products (Casey, 1980). It is composed of high bulky
walled fibers and vigor obtained from outer layer and bundle of fibers. The fiber
walls are thick of various lengths and have sharp ends (Ilvessalo-Pfäffli,
1995). The bagasse contains 52.42% 
cellulose,  21.69%  lignin, 
73.92%  holocellulose, 45.3%
?-cellulose,  2.73%  ash 
and,  1.66%  ethanol/dichloromethane. It is used in
various applications like to make printing and writing paper, tissue paper, glassine,
grease proof paper etc. (Peng and Simonson, 1992).

b)                 
 Cotton stalks

The
botanical name of cotton is Goossypium. Cotton is grown mainly for its fiber
but these are only few uses of plant stem. Cotton stalks can be extremely good
quality source of fiber, but its storage causes a trouble. Stalks meaning a
supporting part of a plant e.g. a leaf stem petiole. Morphologically, cotton
stalks fiber and varieties of hardwood fiber are similar. Also it was used for
the manufacturing of high grades of paper (Mobarak, and Nada, 1975). The cotton
stalks were external sheets of tree and quite fibrous while newsprint superiority
paper can be made from it. It was a possible resource of unprocessed materials
for papermaking (Alcaide, et al., 1991). 

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