Althoughcases of HIV/AIDS infections have decreased, enormous challenges still remainthat must be dealt with.

Firstof all, too few people with HIV are aware of their infection themselves. Becausemany new infections are transmitted by people who do not know they areinfected,undiagnosedinfection remains a significant factor fueling the HIV epidemic. HIVtesting has never been quicker or easier than it is today, and more people havebeen tested than ever before. But fear and misperceptions can still keep peoplefrom finding out their HIV status. For example, many people, even those whoengage in high-risk behavior, do not get tested because they do not believe theyare at risk for HIV infection; others misunderstand the testing process, notrealizing that rapid HIV tests can be done with a simple check swab or fingerprick and provided results in as little as 20 minutes; somepeople are concerned that other people will find out that they have testedpositive (or that they sought testing at all), although testing is completelyconfidential; some people may avoid testing simply because they are afraidtheir test is positive.Socialdisgrace against HIV/AIDS patients presents another major challenge to preventHIV/AIDS. HIV/AIDS patients are treated unequally in hospitals and deniedemployment.

Children with HIV do not have opportunity to go to school. In 2009,children with HIV were expelled from the school by parents in Ho Chi Minh Cityforcing officials. The lack of knowledge about the disease and the rights ofpeople and HIV/AIDS patients’ behavior not accepted by people’s prejudices arethe main causes of the discrimination mentioned above.

This discourages peoplewith HIV to go for screening and or to take medication in fear of revealingtheir HIV status.Manypeople not receiving ongoing treatment and prevention information and tools is alsoone of the main reasons increasing HIV/AIDS infections. If people living withHIV receive ongoing care and treatment, it is one of the most effective ways toprotect their health and prevent the further spread of HIV. Moreover if peoplewith HIV treated, it also lowers the amount of virus in their body and candramatically reduce their risk of transmitting HIV to others. However, diversepopulations, including gay and bisexual men of all races, ethnicities – particularlythose who are young, transgender women and more people than ever before livingwith HIV, cannot access accurate prevention information and effectiveprevention tools because accessing to care and treatment services is stilllimited.

Fourthly,it is human resource problem which is one of the constituent parts of the HIVprevention. It ensures available service, service coverage, and quality ofservice in Viet Nam. However, the limitations on the quantity and quality of humanresources have hindered to invent new treatments.

HIV / AIDS preventionprograms lack the possible conditions to attract and retain qualifiedemployees. Therefore, Vietnam has, in the past decade, mobilized substantialsupport from donors to directly increase and expand human resources in the HIV-related services delivery system. Finally,enormously costly treatment is what the poor HIV patients must face. Forexample, an estimated cost for a HIV patient cured by Anti-retrovaral (ARV), adrug designed to reduce the proliferation of HIV virus in the body, is about10,000 VND/day. However, for most HIV patients in poor circumstances,the payment of 300,000 VND/month for ARV drugs is too large.

In case of lack ofARV, the risk of transmittance of people carrying the disease to the communityis extremely high. The HIV patient not receiving ongoing ARV treatment willdie, or become resistant to treatment, making the treatment process moredifficult and costly.

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