all levels of the hierarchy (Basu, n.

d.). Third, group norms are the informal guidelines ofbehaviour and a code of conduct that provides some order and conformity to group activitiesand operations.

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These rules are expected to be followed by all the group members to ensure thefunction of the group is effective (What are Group Norms?, n.d.).Group performance is the output of a group working which can represent theeffectiveness of the work. Quality and quantity of group productivity can be different even ifthe size and the talent of it is identical. It can be influenced by the presence of others, leadership,number of levels of hierarchy, group norms, group size and group goals.

In this research paper,we will focus on the effect of leadership, number of levels of hierarchy and group norms ongroup productivity and performance.Leadership undeniably affects organizational performance, especially outcomes andproductivity. Leaders, apart from their actions and personal influence, should be empoweredto make the critical decisions and keep operations running smoothly and effectively. They alsoneed to constantly keep themselves up to date with the current affairs and situations (Bawany,2017). In order to maintain a good performance of an organization, the number of levels in ithas to be lower and the members must be integrated.

A reduced in the rules and regulations ofan organization also can aid in the performances of organization members. Regulations of anorganization cause the innovation of members in performing decreased as they have to followthe rigid norms of the group (Chapter 7. Organizational Structure and Change, n.d.).4Formation of group is important in achieving different purpose based on the situation.

According to Baron and Byrne (1988), “Groups consist of two or more persons engaged insocial interaction who have some stable structure relationship with one another, areinterdependent, share common goals and perceive that they are in fact part of a group.” Thuswhen two or more individuals gather together to serve a common purpose or common motiveit is called a group (Deeksha, n.d.).There are two types of groups formed in society. Formal group is a group that has itsown regulations and norms which determine and control the functions of group members in it.Members in the a formal group have to accept the group value and build it with other groupmembers. While for the informal group, it does not have a well-defined norm, rules andregulations.

It is naturally formed and the group members in it are free to develop their rolecongenial themselves (Deeksha, n.d.).A group has a certain structure that defines the relationship between members over time.Group structure is defined as the internal framework that defines members’ relations to oneanother over time (Group dynamics, n.d.).

It is important in determining whether the groupachieve a certain goal or not. The structure of a group has several features such as groupleadership, set of hierarchy and group norms.First, a group leader is someone who provides direction, instructions and guidance totheir group members for the purpose of achieving a certain goal. An effective leader will knowwell about the members’ strengths, weaknesses and motivations (Gigli, n.d.

). Second, thehierarchy in a group has different layers that determine the role of each group member. Groupmembers usually play their role in the group based on the behaviour expected from people atChapter 1: Background


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