is an essential part of advertising and marketing. A part of the communication
process involves language; it is the main channel of communication between
individuals and advertising. A clear message is required in order to
successfully transmit the message to the audience. Hence, language is a great
tool of persuasion and an important component of establishing a positive
influence on consumers and building a successful brand.

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We are
living in the area of the digital world. Whether we like or not, we are
bombarded daily with thousands of advertisements and commercials on various
platforms including print and online media. These advertisements use both
verbal and non-verbal forms of communication to connect with customers. Both
are equally important in conveying meaningful messages and persuasive ideas. Mehmet and Clarke (2016)
explain that social media has altered the creation of messages and meanings
because it allows the combination of language, image, videos, and sounds. The
advancement of technology and the Internet influenced global communication and
reshaped the use of language in marketing. For instance, messages became more
personal and less formal in order to connect with the audience and relate to
them. Additionally,
Epure, Eisenstat, and Dinu (2014) acknowledge that the relationship between
meaning and language is complicated because it involves an interaction between
social contexts and human behaviors. They observed that the advertising
industry uses language to convince consumers to buy a service or product, which
can change their behavior and consumption patterns.

To convey
the idea to customers, a company should know how to use words, logos, sounds,
slogans and symbols to form convincing texts and powerful messages. In other
words, language is a powerful tool that influences people’s actions and
behaviors. It can affect the persuasion of the audience, create a dialogue with
them and manipulate their choice of purchase. That is why the choice of words
in addition to graphics is stressed upon during the process of creating an
advertising campaign. Khang, Ki, and Ye (2012) explain
that social media and society equally influence the world of advertising.

People use social media to share photos, videos, and texts that can be in the
form of advertisement.  With the increased
use of user-generated content and social networks, the choice of language in
these platforms determines more than ever the level of persuasion and interest
among customers. In a like manner, Coffey (2012) added that the audience selects
what to view on social media; therefore the consumption of products is based on
their understanding of the advertisement. For this reason, researchers suggest
that the language used in these advertisements should be the first language of
the audience. Studies indicated that consumers feel more involved and connected
to their mother tongue language. For example, the highest watched programs on
television on the channel Univision by Hispanics in the US are in Spanish. For
this reason, advertisers should study their target audience and analyze their
consumption trends. Comparatively, Van Vaerenbergh and Holmqvist (2013)
acknowledge that people are becoming more bilingual and multilingual. However,
studies indicated that consumers have an emotional bond with their native
language. For instance, they tend to tip more when they are served in their
native language and when menus in restaurants are translated.


is becoming widely used in advertisements, Puntoni, De Langhe, & Van
Osselaer (2009) asserted that the increasing effect of globalization encouraged
marketers to use English as the main language in advertising. But studies have
shown that advertisements in native language incite more stimulus and trigger
intense emotions than in a foreign language. On the other hand, some countries
value English more than their native language in advertisements. Wesolowski &
Angelini (2010) pointed out that English has influenced the French advertising
market. French advertisements are becoming more flexible and they borrow
English words and vocabulary to show modernity and display Americanization. For
instance, some advertisements in French magazines are completely in English.

aspect of the advertisement is important, from the color to the words used. The
choice of language matters and can significantly affect people’s perception of
the product.  For this reason, companies
have special teams that are specialized I selecting suitable vocabulary and in
creating words. In fact, the choice of words and vocabulary is carefully chosen
after a deep analysis of the target audience and market. In fact, words
influence the behavior and attitudes of the audience towards a product and
affect the desire to own it. With this in mind, Noriega
& Blair (2008) claim that the relationship between language and
communication varies according to the culture of the society. There are
numerous studies in the social cognitive field that investigate the choice of
language and its effect on marketing, and whether advertising in the native
language of the audience is more effective than mainstream languages. They
reasoned that it is preferable for advertisements to be in the native language
of bilinguals rather than their second language.  For the simple reason that the second
language is harder to process and can be easily unmemorable regardless of the
level of the fluency of the speaker. More importantly, it is more persuasive
particularly with people with high ethnic pride.

Over the
recent years, some companies are trying to include audiences from different
cultures and social backgrounds so as to increase their sales and expand their
base. These companies know that the choice of language can get the attention of
diverse people and help gain a solid consumer base.

Camarero and San José (2011) noted that to convey a certain message, the
audience is required to have a basic knowledge of the product or service presented.

Therefore, the choice of language is important and can act as a persuasive
channel of communication between the advertiser and the audience. Advertisers
should analyze the linguistic context of the target audience and know if they have
sufficient proficiency in English. By communicating in the native language of
the audience, advertisers will benefit from their positive response and may witness
an increase in revenue. Coffey (2014) insisted that advertisers
should value the distinctive cultural traits of the audience and try to
strategically segment the targeted market. For instance, Hispanic Americans and
Asian Americans are the largest ethnic group in the U.S, which is why Spanish
and Mandarin are the most spoken languages after English. Hence, American advertisers,
particularly in television, recognized these linguistic differences and are
using other languages in their advertisements besides subtitles and dubbing.

globalization of advertising has eliminated the boundaries between societies
and has created more multinational brands. Moreover, many companies are changing their
spending strategies and trying to expand their reach to the international
market with the rise of mass production and capitalism. Hence, their marketing
campaigns need to be understood by as many people as possible in order to reach
potential spenders worldwide. Cheung (2010) reported
that in this globalized world, business has become increasingly disseminated.

For this reason, companies should acknowledge the differences between cultures
across the world. The marketing strategies have also changed in order to adapt
to the cultural and social context of the different societies, this is
especially true for the international companies that operate across various
countries. Through language, marketers are able to shape the opinions of the
audience and persuading them of the benefits of a certain product or service. For
instance, Chinese companies focus on building harmonious and credible long-term
relationship between the business and the customer. On the other hand, American
companies seek an instant gratification relationship that prioritizes
directness and focuses on sales.


In this
globalized business world, companies are changing their advertising strategies
to accommodate the capitalist nature of consumer societies.

De Langhe, & Van Osselaer (2009) observed that marketers use different
languages and translations of the original ad to transmit certain messages.

Messages are transmitted mainly in English, which is different than most
consumers’ native language. Unsurprisingly, consumers expressed more connection
to commercials in their native language and had more emotional responses to

Following this further, Flores,
Chen, and Ross (2014) argue that language must be carefully well thought out in
advertising, especially in an international setting. People prefer
advertisements in their first language because they have less cognitive
meanings and are easily understood. For instance, bilingual Spanish speakers
prefer commercials in Spanish rather than English because it can be easily
processed and produces more positive feelings.

use emotional words to provoke some type of emotion from the audience. This
includes love, fear, power, modernity, glamour, prestige, fun and dreams …etc,
to create a certain type of fantasy and need in order to satisfy the human
desire and validate its existence.  The advertisements
give the impression that the product is going to create happiness and fulfill a
need that is missing. This increases the consumption of products because people
usually buy more things than they need. Kemp, Bui,
& Chapa (2012) emphasized that the choice of purchase is based on emotions.

In other words, consumers respond differently to advertisements depending on
the feeling and judgment of the product or service. Language is an essential
part of the communication process because it can regulate the emotions of the
consumers. Marketers try to avoid triggering negative emotions such as sadness
and irritation. Instead, they aim to trigger positive feelings such as
happiness and pleasure.

As has
been noted, the global market is saturated with companies that are trying to
maintain their position and with new companies that are fighting to establish
their brand. Irrespective of their position, these companies have one common
goal, which insists on influencing and attracting more customers. Therefore, advertisers
should consider culture as an extremely important component of marketing when
targeting domestic consumers. For this purpose, marketers should recognize the ethnic
and linguistic differences of the audiences across all platforms, namely newspapers,
radio, television, and online media. Smart business industries comprehend the
global landscape of language. They also understand that they need to use
diverse advertising campaigns depending on the cultural aspect of each country.

Companies such as Google, Apple, and McDonald, have regional offices and
headquarters that develop brand campaigns tailored to the local culture.


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