AIR TRAFFICCONTROLLING   STRUCTURE Chiefoperation officer is responsible for all the major airports in Pakistan.

He isdealing these following:TOWERCONTROLLER               He is responsible for landing, take offand any maneuver on  ground.AREACONTROLLER                    He isresponsible for arrival, departure transit.  APPROACHCONTROLLER              He is responsible for arrival anddeparture.

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 PREFLIGHT INFORMATION                        He is responsible for theprovision of flight plans. AREAPROCEDURE CONTROLLER                   He is responsible for arearadar and arrival departure procedures. It will also deal with current trafficarea radar is radar is off.

Also,under chief operation officer comes RADARFACILITY CHIEF.FACILITYTRAINING OFFICER.MANAGERAIRSIDE : He was responsible for bird shotter and maintenance and he was underCOO but now he comes under airport manager.   Air activitycontrollers are work force in charge of the protected, organized, and speedystream of air movement in the worldwide aviation authority framework. Generallypositioned in airport regulation focuses and control towers on the ground, theyscreen the position, speed, and height of air ship in their allocated airspaceoutwardly and by radar, and offer headings to the pilots by radio. The positionof air activity controller is one that requires exceptionally specificlearning, aptitudes, and capacities.

Controllers apply detachment principles tokeep airplane at a sheltered separation from each other in their generalvicinity of duty and move all flying machine securely and productively throughtheir relegated part of airspace, and additionally on the ground. Sincecontrollers have a fantastically huge obligation while on obligation (regularlyin flight, “on position”) and set aside a few minutes choices once aday, the ATC calling is reliably viewed far and wide as a standout amongst themost rationally difficult vocations, and can be famously unpleasant relyingupon numerous factors. History:In 1921, CroydonAirport, London was the main airplane terminal on the planet to present airmovement control. In the United States,airport regulation created three divisions. The first of air mail radiostations was made in 1922 after World War I when the U.S. Mail station startedutilizing methods created by the Army to direct and track the developments ofsurveillance air ship. After some time, the AMRS transformed into flightbenefit stations.

The present flight benefit stations don’t issue controldirections, yet furnish pilots with numerous other flight related instructiveadministrations. They do transfer control guidelines from ATC in territorieswhere flight benefit is the main office with radio or telephone scope. Theprincipal air terminal activity control tower, managing landings, takeoffs andsurface development of airplane at airport, opened in Cleveland in 1930.Approach/takeoff control offices were made after appropriation of radar in the1950s to screen and control the bustling airspace around bigger air terminals.The principal air course activity control focus, which coordinates thedevelopment of flying machine amongst flight and goal was opened in Newark, NJin 1935, followed in 1936 by Chicago and Cleveland. Navigation Aid Used by ATC:·       Ground to air communication system·       Very high omnidirectional range ·       Localizer·       Glideslope·       Marker beacons·       Radar   Ground to air communication system:                         Correspondence amongstpilots and air movement controllers takes  put by means of radio gear ready to work inthe recurrence run 112– 156 MHz (VHF Civil Comms) and additionally 225– 400MHz  (UHF Military Comms) with 25 kHz andadditionally 8.

33 kHz of channel separating. The ground establishments can madeout of a few handsets which can deal with more than 50 frequencies (transporters) freely.Each radio connected with by the controller can transmit a bearer with anostensible RF energy of 50 W balanced in simple or advanced mode.

Fordependability and wellbeing, the framework is typically as excess as could beallowed, implying that a extensive number of radios might be requirednotwithstanding for a little airport. Vhfomnidirectional range:TheVHF Omnidirectional Radio or VOR is a kind of short-extend radio route frameworkfor air ship. It empowers air ship to decide their position and remain oncourse by getting radio motions in the recurrence extend 108– 117.

950 MHz whichare transmitted by a system of settled ground radio reference points. It speaksto a cutting edge contrasting option to NDBs. Dissimilar to NDBs, the VORtransmits two flags: the ground station conveys an ace flag , and anexceedingly directional second flag which differs in stage 30 times each secondcontrasted with the master. Marker beacons:AMarker Beacon is a specific sort of VHF radio reference point utilized as apart of flight, ordinarily in conjunction with an Instrument Landing Framework(ILS), to give pilots a way to decide their position along a built up course toa goal, for example, a runway. It is arranged on a similar course/track as thelocalizer also, the runway centreline, 4 to 7 nautical miles previously therunway limit, and transmitts a transporter at 75 MHz. Dme:TheDistance Measuring Equipment is a transponder-based  radioroute innovation that measures incline run remove by timing the spread deferralof RF radio signs. DME is regularly co-situated with VORs and its usefulness islike optional radars, aside from in switch. DME transponders transmit on adirect in the 962– 1213 MHz go and get on a comparing channel between 1025–1150 MHznon direction beacon : ANon-Directional (radio) Beacon is a radio transmitter at a referred tolocation.

It is utilized as a flying or marine navigational help. The NDBtransmits as its distinguishing proof flag a morse code in the long/medium waverecurrence go (190– 1750 kHz) in all bearings. Because of its agent recurrencego, NDB signals take after the ebb and flow of the earth, so they can be gottenat significantly more prominent separations at bring down heights. The pilotcan assess his genuine position by methods for the on-board Automatic HeadingFinder (ADF). Ils:TheInstrument Landing System comprises of two free sub-frameworks, one givingparallel direction (Localizer – LOCwhat’s more, the other vertical direction(Glide Slope or Glide PathGP) to the air ship that are moving toward a runway.In both cases, two distinctive RF signals are transmitted balanced at  90 Hz and 150 Hz individually.

The LOC isordinarily foundpast the flight end of the runway and by and large comprises ofa few sets of directional recieving wires working in the recurrence go 108.10–111.95 MHz, while the GP is a radio wire cluster arranged to the other side ofthe runway touchdown zone and working in the recurrence scope of 328.6– 335.4MHz.Computers:communicationis a key detail within the presentATC system, and advances incommunicationtechnology may open new alternatives for configuringthe device inthe destiny. traditionally,voice radio has been the primary and nearlyexclusivemeans of speaking among aircraftand the ground. virtual verbalexchange—the transmission of records in the shape of machinereadablebinaryindicators—has come into use forlinking ground stations (in particular forcomputer-to-laptopinterchanges), but it has notyet been carried out forair-ground messages, exceptin the constrained case of transmitting aircraftidentificationand altitude through ATCRBS transponders.

in the destiny, it ispredicted that an airgroundvirtual information hyperlink will play anincreasingly morecrucial position because the automation of ATC functionscallsfor more direct conversation betweenairborne and ground-based totallycomputers.every other crucial advantage of the virtualfacts link is that it allowsmessages to be transmittedselectively. the existing voice-radiomethod isbroadcast—i. e., available to any andall aircraft prepared with the idealreceiver,no matter the intended recipient. This”party line” function has sureadvantages, considering the fact thatit lets in pilots to increase a sense ofwhat’soccurring inside the surrounding airspace. however,a “discrete address”era that allowsmessages to be despatched to a specific recipientmay be extrapowerful than broadcast for proceduresthat require pc-to-laptop verbalexchange.that is the underlying principle othe Mode S records hyperlink(previously the Discrete addressBeacon device, or DABS), that’s ancriticalconstructing block in FAA’s plans for destinygadget improvement.

in thefuture, with the creation of a digitalstatistics hyperlink capable of selectiveaddress,  awesomemodes of verbal exchangecan be expected.Broadcast, the mode now used, will preserve forvoice or digitaltransmissions of preferred hobby,which includes climate, airport repute, andtraffic advisories.other transmissions, pertinent simplest tounique aircraft,will be despatched by way of a discreteaddressdigital records link that permitsisolation ofunique receiving stations.Structure (Leading):  Chiefoperation officer is responsible for all the major airports in Pakistan. He isdealing these following:TOWERCONTROLLER               He is responsible for landing, take offand any maneuver on  ground.AREACONTROLLER                    He isresponsible for arrival, departure transit.

 APPROACHCONTROLLER              He is responsible for arrival anddeparture. PREFLIGHT INFORMATION                        He is responsible forthe provision of flight plans. AREAPROCEDURE CONTROLLER                   He is responsible for arearadar and arrival departure procedures.

It will also deal with current trafficarea radar is radar is off.Also,under chief operation officer comes RADARFACILITY CHIEF.FACILITYTRAINING OFFICER.MANAGERAIRSIDE : He was responsible for bird shotter and maintenance and he was underCOO but now he comes under airport manager.

 Head QuaterHeadquarter of air traffic controlling consist of main three officers the head ofthis is deputy director general of air navigation services. It is dealing the wholePakistan air traffic controllers and head of all the controllers present inPakistan.   Underthis comes the chief operation officer who is the head of all the majorairports like Islamabad, Karachi and Lahore airport. Under him comesTowercontroller, area controller, approach controller, area procedure controller,radar facility chief and facility training officer.  GOALS :inan effort to accomplish the goals of protection, performance,andprice-effective operation, the existingATC gadget gives the subsequentofferings to theaviation network:separationguarantee—tracking plane inflight, often with surveillance radars onthe floorand airborne transponders, inorder to make sure that ok separation ismaintainedand to detect and solve conflictsas they stand up;navigationaids—preserving a machine ofdescribed airways and aids to navigation andsettingup approaches for their use;climate and flight statistics— informingusers ofthe situations that may be predictedalongside the meant route so they may planasafe and green flight;weatherand flight information— informing users of the conditions that may be expectedalong the intended route so they may plan a safe and efficient flight; trafficmanagement-processing and comparing the flight plans, distributing flight plansto allow controllers to keep track of intended routes and anticipate potentialconflicts, and ensuring the smooth and efficient flow of traffic in order tominimize costly congestion and delays; andlanding services-operating airport control towers; instrument landing systems,and other aids that facilitate the movement of air traffic in the vicinity ofairports and runways, particularly during peak periods or bad weather thatmight affect safety or capacity.  services:thoseservices collectively include an incorporatedsoftware, no part of which can befully effectivewith out the others.

Flight plans should take intoaccountweather and visitors, for example, andsite visitors have to be routed todestinations in order that itarrives on time and may be treated on theairportwith no less than put off. further, clearancesmust be modified so thatvisitors can be routedround intense weather or away from bottlenecksthatdevelop in the system. In a practicalexperience, the aircrew and ground controllerscooperateas a crew using numerous human and electronicsources to holdprotection and to transportvisitors expeditiously. whilst the closing dutyforprotection of flight rests with the pilot, hestays dependent in lots ofapproaches on records or choicesfrom the ground. Preflight”weare geared up to board the flight!” With excitedanticipationpassengers arrive at the airport terminal totake a look at their baggage. atthe equal time the flight group isalready checking the aircraft to be sure it isready to fly.based totally on the weather for that day, the pilot will planthefirst-class and maximum efficient route and altitude for the flight.Thepilot’s flight plan is then communicated to a controller whotests visitorsalongside that path to look if the request can begranted.

Having the flightinformation in advance of time,thecontrollers can competently guide the flight from one cityto every other.whilepassengers locate their seats and stow their carry-onbags, the pilot startsoffevolved the radio communication with thetower. The cockpit flight groupinforms the controller,placed within the tower cab, that they’re approximatelyready to beginthe flight. The controller will manual the aircraft from thegatealong the taxiways to the runway. Takeofonthe stop of the runway, the tower controller tells the pilotclose to theairport. whilst the pilot radios for permissiontotake off, the controller visually tests the runways andsurrounding place fordifferent visitors that might be inside the manner.

while the controllerdetermines that the runway location is apparent, the pilot is permitted to taxionto the runway andtake off.The airplane will begin to circulate down therunway, and whenit reaches a selected speed, it’ll raise off the floor.Passengerscan also sense like they may be being pushed back intheir seat as the airplanespeeds up. they’ll additionally listenthe touchdown equipment rumble as itretracts into the airplane’swheel wells.

Now airborne, the plane is on its waytoits vacation spot. At this factor, the controller tells the pilotto, “contactDeparture control.” Departure”lookat the ants!” as the airplane climbs to its assignedaltitude, you could see theearth beneath and maybe even theclouds above.

The vehicles at the highways looklike theyare tiny ants slowly crawling alongside. The homes appearlikeminiature houses.At this factor of the flight passengers are settling in toread,take a sleep, or just relax, but, this is a completely busy timefor thepilots. The pilots have to listen carefully to thecommands from ATC whilstflying the plane andmonitoring all its gauges and instruments.The TRACONcontroller responsible for this section of flightis referred to as thedeparture controller. This controller uses allthe information at the radarscopeto safely manual the flight thru TRACON airspace.

because the aircraft climbshigher,departure manage may supply the pilots a brand new compassheading oraltitude trade to keep away from different planeor risks.once the flightreaches the outer limits of the TRACONairspace, the departure controller passesthe flight onto the En course middle. The controller will then say”contactcenter.”EndirectionThe aircraft might also nevertheless be hiking to an altitude ofover30,000 toes while it enters En route middle airspace. Atsome pointthroughout the flight segment, the plane will attainits assigned altitude.

If apassenger goes to be servedwhatever to consume or drink, that is the time onthe way to show up.The captain may additionally flip off the seat belt sign sopassengerscan move approximately and stretch their legs.Like TRACONcontrollers, En course middle controllerssong airplane radar objectives andinformation blocks. The centermay additionally inform the pilot approximatelyany giant weather which includethunderstorms or turbulence alongside the way.If it becomesnecessary, the controller will request that the pilots adjusttheirflight’s altitude, velocity, or path to keep away from climateor otherairplanes.

The airplane is quietly exceeded from onecontroller to the next asthe flights progresses in the direction of it’ssupposed destination  DescentThe”Fasten Seat Belt” sign is became on when theairplane is ready 200 miles fromits destination, because the pilotprepares to descend. a few passengers mayadditionally experience a touch likethey’re floating of their seat for a secondas the airplanestarts offevolved to descend for its arrival on theairport.about 50 miles from the airport, the radar manageis exceeded directlyto the TRACON and the controller tells thepilot to “contact method control.”approach The aircraft isentering TRACON airspacewhichis shaped like an the wrong way upwedding cake (see diagram at theright).This time it’s the techniqueController who courses theaircraft closer to therunway.The approach controller will direct the pilot to progressivelylower theairplane’s altitude. The pilot may additionally make numerousturns until theaircraft is coated up with the middle of therunway.

working on this airspace isnot any ‘piece of cake’ forpilots and controllers, as airplanes fly at quicklychangingairspeeds and altitudes. The technique controller often hasan extendedline of airplanes descending in sequence fortouchdown. In truth, this line ofairplanes within the sky may additionally make biggerout 50 miles or more!whilst the airplane is set 10 milesfrom the airport, the pilot is instructed to”contact Tower.”            POLC PLANNINGTake off 1. Airliner bring flight plan to tower foracceptance.

2. Assistant bring flight progress strip having allthe details of flight to the controller.3. Pilot ask for take off clearance from,·        Approach control for,                       Sid OR Star                                                    ·        Area control for,               Route LevelLanding1. Airliner bring flight plan.2. Flight progress strip same as departure.

3. Estimate arrival time.4.

Radar vecting.5. Taxing.

6. Parking. (All done by ATC planning) ORGANISING ·        Let the pilot be aware about all restrictions.·        Making aircraft to taxi. (RWR clear,bird activity, visibility)·        Aerodrome controller.

(approachpermissions)·        Conditions for take off. (level,heading)Controlling:·        Airportcontrol·        Groundcontrol·        Localcontrol/ Air control·        Approach& Terminal ControlPurpose of ATC:·        Safety– Conflict Avoidance – Separation of Aircraft·        VisualFlight Rules·        InstrumentalFlight Rules·        Efficiency– Flow control  


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