achieve better
outcomes on measures of reading comprehension and meta-cognitive skill, but not
critical thinking, when SAM-LS activities include small team collaborations.
The two studies suggest future directions for research and development of
SAM-LS and the Highlighter tool.

Trautman(2012)
reported that strategies to help develop and improve annotation with young
adults, paying particular attention to aiding their reading comprehension
skills and critical thinking skills. Teenage students were given a Likert
scale, student questionnaire, and select students participated in a focus
group. Observations and a journal were kept to record thoughts and comments on
how annotation activities were going. The findings show annotation can help
students become better reader, writers, and critical thinkers. The purpose of
this study is to explore strategies to develop and improve annotation strategies
in the seventh grade English classroom.

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Beletand
Dal  (2010)based on the  study is to determine the primary education
pre-service teachers’ opinions about the use of storytelling to develop the
primary school students’ critical reading strategies. The study was designed
with qualitative research approach and criterion sampling method was used to
select 53 participants. The collected data was analyzed through descriptive
analysis. As a result of the study, it was obtained that the pre-service teachers
had positive opinions about the use of storytelling to develop the critical
reading strategies and their opinions about the contribution of the method were
compatible with the strategies explained in literature within the context of
critical reading. Consequently, the pre-service teachers suggested carrying out
the studies on the applications of the method during their education, also they
emphasized that these studies should be conducted with the primary education
teachers.

 

English for Specific Purposes

English for specific purposes
(ESP) is a movement based on the proposition that all language teaching
programs should be tailored to the specific learning and language use needs of
identified groups of students. After the Second World War English became the
accepted international language of technology,
science, and commerce, it created a new generation of learners who knew specifically why they
were learning the language. In fact
there was a pre-determined goal in their learning English. Whereas English had
previously decided its own destiny, it now became subject to needs, and demands
of people other than language teachers. Dovey (2006) states courses which
prepare students for the workplace in specific ways can be expected to have
purposes quite different from those of discipline based courses and can also be
expected to introduce new questions.

ESP also became an important part
of English –as-second language teaching in the 1970s and 1980s, probably as a
direct result of the introduction of communicative teaching curricula. Its main
drive was practical, driven by the increasing numbers of people around the world
who needed English for clearly defined reasons such as reading academic
textbooks or transacting business (Hutchinson and Waters, 1987).

English teaching needs an
appropriate strategy to help the students in improving
their achieving, as Nation (2003) affirmed that if a teacher will help
students handle with low frequency vocabulary, he is better to spend time
to concentrate on vocabulary teaching strategies for dealing with unknown
vocabulary by using some strategies. Whereas, Wiese (2012) acknowledged that
English teachers who have access to a repertoire of vocabulary

 Learning strategies that
will support relevant vocabulary words.

 

 

ESP
Vocabulary Learning

The students should become aware
of the importance of language learning strategies and get trained to use them
appropriately. Teaching vocabulary especially in ESP courses is becoming a
challenge for English Language Teachers.  Vocabulary is an inseparable part of any
teaching syllabus and vocabulary should be taught in a well-planned and regular
basis. It is essential to carefully decide what vocabulary will be selected for
teaching, and what approach or activities will be used to teach it to the
students.

 

ESP
and Critical Reading Strategies

The way vocabulary activities are
presented in ESP course books reinforces the learners’ preference for rote
learning as a traditional habit mainly attributed to their “educational background”
and “failure to try out the best strategies” (Li, 2004; Hayati Samian
and Tavakoli, 2012). As it is mentioned by Hayati Samian and Tavakoli (2012:
629),”the educational system in Iran the learners toward rote learning
strategies.  Moreover, Iranian learners
show reluctance to trying new strategies and strategy training.”

 

ESP
and Critical Reading Strategies

Through critical reading the
reader seeks ways to first understand and then confront the ideas of the writer
and that often may require thinking and using the ESP vocabulary of the text.

A critical reader performs a
mental action on the word form and makes associations between the context and
his own personal knowledge to infer word meanings (Wallace, 2003).

The researcher wanted to apply the
critical reading strategies for improving learning ESP vocabulary. She stated
if the students discussed the text and elaborated it, they would comprehend the
ESP words better and make them stick in their mind.  Critical reading
activities such as text summarizing, annotating, and lexical inferencing,
questioning proved to have a better impact on vocabulary learning. The
researcher felt that through these activities, all students received the
opportunity to engage in a type of intellectual discussion and made their
voices heard. Finally, the results of this study might have also been due to
the positive impact of critical reading strategies on the vocabulary learning
in ESP class.

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