According to WHO, adolescent is in therange age of 10 to 19 years old. These group often consider healthy people butthere are still cases of death due to intention and unintentional injuries,mental health, behaviour problem, nutrition and physical activity, sexualhealth, and chronic illness.
MENTALHEALTH PROBLEM Adolescent is in the phaseof transition between childhood and adulthood. They are in the process ofdetermining their identity and issues of independence, sexuality, andrelationships at this developmental stage. WHO define mental health as a stateof well-being in which individual realizes their own potential, able to managewith the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and isable to make a contribution to others. WHO also reported depression is one ofthe major causes of disability-adjusted life years lost in 10–19 year olds.Mental health problemsthat occur among this group are mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and thoughtdisorders (such as schizophrenia) as well as psychosocial disorders. Somedisorder may develop or first become apparent during adolescence. Psychologicaland social problems (psychosocial disorder), particularly involving behavioursand school issues, and are more common during adolescence.
Adolescents are muchmore independent and mobile and are often out of the direct control of adults. Levy S. an AssistantProfessor of Pediatrics in Harvard Medical School, says that when misbehaviour becomessevere and frequent, adolescents should be evaluated for a psychosocialdisorder by a mental health professional.
Adolescent often experience depression,anxiety and eating disorder and it is common at their age due to their developmentalprocess. Adolescents who have anxiety or mood disorders may have physicalsymptoms such as fatigue or chronic fatigue, dizziness, headache, and abdominalor chest pain. Anxiety often occur duringadolescence, followed by mood disorders and disruptive behavioural disorderssuch as oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. Tendency to beanxious can be inherit.
Anxious parents tend to have anxious children. Exampleof anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, panicdisorder, separation anxiety disorder, and social anxiety disorder. Thoughtdisorders, is an individual has difficulty in distinguishing between fantasyand reality also can be called psychotic disorders, most commonly begin duringadolescence or early adulthood.
The first episode of psychosis is called apsychotic break. Schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder are examples ofthought disorders. Periods of psychosis may be related to drug use. In thesecases, psychosis may resolve after a period of time.Suicide is one of themajor cause of death for this age group and causes of disability-adjusted lifeyears (DALYs). NCBI classify suicide into two category which is suicidal behaviourand suicidal ideation. According to D.
De Leo, S. Burgis, J.M. Bertolote,A.
J.F.M. Kerkhof, and U.
Bille-Brahe (2006), is their research of DefinitionsOn Suicidal Behavioural, they come out with definition of a nonhabitual actwith nonfatal outcome that the individual, expecting to, or taking the risk todie or to inflict bodily harm, initiated and carried out with the purpose ofbringing about wanted changes. While NCBI describes it as action intended toharm oneself and includes suicide gestures, suicide attempts, and completedsuicide. NCBI also describes suicidal ideation as thoughts and plans aboutsuicide. Suicide attempts are acts of self-harm that could result in death,such as hanging or drowning. The causes for adolescent to conduct suicidalbehaviour or though are divorce, a new family formation, moving to a differentcommunity, physical or sexual abuse, emotional neglect, exposure to domesticviolence, alcoholism in the home, and substance abuse.
Having all of theseproblem without good support network may cause to depression and lead tosuicide. Eatingdisorders, such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, avoidant or restrictivefood intake disorder, binge eating disorder, pica, and rumination disorder.These disorder most commonly develop during adolescence and are more commonamong girls.
Eating disorders involve a disturbance of eating or of behaviourrelated to eating, typically including changes in what or how much people eatand measures people take to prevent food from being absorbed. For example,making themselves vomit or taking a laxative. To considered unusual eatingbehaviours to be a disorder, the behaviours conduct by the person must continuefor a period of time and cause significant harm to the person’s physical healthor ability to function at school or work or negatively affect the person’sinteractions with other people.
Example ofMental health problems and disorders in adolescents* Problem or disorder Prevalence (%) Common Depression 3-5 Anxiety 4-6 Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder 2-4 Eating disorders 1-2 Conduct disorder 4-6 Substance misuse disorder 2-3 Less common Panic disorder 1-2 Post-traumatic stress disorder 1-2 Borderline personality disorder 1-3 Schizophrenia 0.5 Autistic spectrum disorders (such as autism, Asperger’s syndrome) 0.6 Chronic DiseaseHIV stands for human immunodeficiencyvirus. There is effective antiretroviral treatment available so people with HIVcan live a normal and healthy life. Adolescent that infected by HIV mostlythrough sex. These infected group some are unaware of their health status. WHOreported that in 2016 alone, 610,000 young people between the ages of 15 to 24were newly infected with HIV, of whom 260,000 were adolescents between the agesof 15 and 19.
Most recent data indicate that only 15 per cent of adolescentgirls and 10 per cent of adolescent boys aged 15-19 in sub-Saharan Africa – theregion most affected by HIV – have been tested for HIV in the past 12 monthsand received the result of the last test. If these trends being continue,hundreds of thousands more will become HIV-positive in the coming years. NCBIhave stated that deaths of adolescent related to AIDS had increased causing decreaseamong other age groups and actually there is large number of children infectedwith HIV prenatally growing into adolescents.Prevalence(per 1000 adolescents aged 12-18 years) of certain chronic conditions inmid-adolescence Prevalence Musculoskeletal conditions: 41 Cerebral palsy 15 Skin conditions 32 Serious mental health problems: 120* Anorexia or bulimia nervosa 15 Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder 100* Diabetes: Type 1 2 Type 2 1-2 Respiratory conditions: 150* Asthma 100* Cystic fibrosis 0.1 Epilepsy 4 Ear or hearing problems 18 *Uncertain value owing to differencesin disease definitions