According to waste prevention directive 2008/98/ECArt.

3 (“Definitions”), par. 9 waste management means the collection, transport,recovery, and disposal of waste, including the supervision of such operationsand after-care of disposal sites, and including actions taken as a dealer orbroker.Solid waste management systems need to ensure humanhealth and safety.

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Also, these systems must be safe for all workers andsafeguard public health by preventing the spread of disease. Furthermore,addition to these requirements, a sustainable system for solid waste managementmust be environmentally effective, economically affordable and sociallyacceptable.1.Environmentally effective: the wastemanagement system should minimize as much as possible the environmental burdensof waste management (emissions to land, air, and water)2. Economicallyaffordable: the waste managementsystem should operate at a cost-effectively, which includes all stakeholder. However,the costs of operating of waste management system will depend on the incomelevel of the country, state or region.

But probably it should be less or nomore than current waste management costs.3. Sociallyacceptable: the waste managementsystem must operate in a manner that is acceptable for the majority ofstakeholders in the society.1.2.3       WastehierarchyThe Waste Hierarchy sets out a hierarchy of optionsfor managing waste in terms of minimize non-renewable resource depletion,improve air and water quality, to build up greener economy and as a solutionfor the climate change.

According to EU directive 2008/98/EC Art.4(“Definitions”), par. 1 sets out five steps for dealing with waste in priorityorder. Figure 1.2 Wastehierarchy (Source: http://calderdale.objective.       Integratedwaste management systemThe waste management hierarchy is criticallydiscussed, and in its place is suggested a holistic approach that assesses theoverall environmental burdens and economic costs of the whole system.

F.R. McDougall,et.

al 2001 defined as integratedwaste management (IWM) systems combining with waste generation streams, wastecollection and waste treatment and disposal methods, with the objective ofachieving environmental bene?ts, economic optimization and societal acceptability.The Key features of IWM are:1.     An overall approach2.     Uses a range ofcollection and treatment methods3.     Handles allmaterials in the waste stream4.     Environmentallyeffective5.     Economicallyaffordable6.     SociallyacceptableWaste is a steady product from around the world.

Primarily solid waste management practices were developed to minimize and avoidthe deleterious effects on public health that were being caused by theincreasing amounts of solid waste being disposed of without proper collectionor disposal method. Now a day’s society needs to address waste management moreeffectively because, waste becoming the severe problem whole over the world. Figure 1.3 therespective roles of Waste Prevention and Integrated Waste Management. In lifecycle studies, a ‘system’ is de?ned (with boundaries indicated by brokenlines). Energy and raw materials from the ‘environment’ are used in the system.

Emissions, including solid waste, leave the system and enter the environment(Source: F.R. McDougall, P.R. White, M.

Franke, P. Hindle, “Integrated SolidWaste Management: A Life Cycle Inventory”, 2nd Edition, 2001)


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