According to Karl Marx, he mentioned commodity fetishism in his book—-On Capital’A commodity, therefore, is a mysterious thing simply because in it the social character of men’s labour appears to them as an objective character stamped upon the product of that labour; because the relation of the producers to the sum total of their own labour is presented to them as a social relation, existing not between themselves, but between the products of their labour. This is the reason why the products of labour become commodities…. to find an analogy we must have recourse to the mist-enveloped regions of the religious world. In that world, the productions of the human brain appear as independent beings endowed with life and entering into relation both with one another and the human race. So it is in the world of commodities with the products of men’s hands. This I call the fetishism which attaches itself to the products of labour.’ Marx, using a “materialist” approach, According to the ‘materialist’ approach, Marx argues that the real social relations of production are masked by the presence of commodities within a capitalist society. Commodities, instead of human labour, they can be seen as the foundation of capitalist society. This idea eventually causes the mystification of commodities. However, human labour gives a special value to goods.  In the capitalist society, People treat commodities as if the objects themselves contained the intrinsic value, rather than regarding value as the amount of real labour expended to produce the object. During the social process of goods, labours effect each other and relate in an atomistic manner- the worker is disconnected from his or her own labour- he/she has no control nor agency (conscious individual action) over the material product of the work of his/her own hands. If it is human labour that gives value to goods, but the labour is void of conscious individual action, then workers will lose creative and enthusiastic.Alienation is another important point in Marxist commodity fetishism theory. There is one effect about consumer fetishism is to transform the relationship amongst people to the relationship between people and goods. Therefore, the relationship between the product and labour has transformed to the relationship between the product of their labour to other goods. Separating and isolating the labour’s creative value, focusing on the value of commodities only. This is a component of alienation.     The sign of commodity fetishism has a decreasing trend in contemporary society, however, it still exists in our daily life but not that serious than before. there are some reasons to cause that. Firstly, Because of the development of online shopping, the trends of online sales continued to grow significantly, it allows people to directly purchase goods and services from a seller through the Internet by using web or apps such as eBay, Amazon, Taobao. People can find any product of interest by visiting the website and get discount information and reviews through notification. It is so convenient because most of the online stores are available in 24 hours, and they have no holiday breaks, more and more consumers have Internet access both at work and at home. Other establishments such as university campus, company, cafe, community centres also provide internet access as well. The options of price and selection have increased. Online shopping is able to seek any specific items or goods. When the consumer has too many purchase options, the power and effect of the commodity are not that wide than the old time.For example, 20 years ago, online shopping is not created yet, visiting a conventional retail store requires travel or commuting and costs such as gas, parking, or bus tickets, and must typically take place during business hours. At that time, people do not have too many opportunities for choosing goods. Secondly, there is another effect which is the development of technology. The result has been a giant leap in productivity. Farmers and labours are introducing innovations which increase the productivity. All the developments cause more and more variety goods appears in the market. The consumers are not only limited to any specific brands but also are willing to purchase others. For example, there are many brands in outdoor clothing such as Nike, Adidas, Puma…all types of brands open consumers’ mind and give them more options. The charm of the commodity is not that deep anymore. Thirdly, the changes in consumer attitudes,  the physical appeal of luxury goods is undeniable —the leather is softer, the shoes are more comfortable —but the price tag is often off-putting. With the development of society, more and more people have changed from the irrational consumer to rational consumer. A decent and beautiful handbag can be purchased for 50 pounds, however, people are still willing to spend thousands to buy a brand name. That is called brand loyalty. Brand loyalty is a pattern of consumer behaviour where consumers become committed to brands and make repeat purchases from the same brands over time. Loyal customers consistently purchase products from their preferred brands, regardless of convenience or price. One reason is the way we tend to look at the positive elements of a product while ignoring its disadvantages. For example, consumers are willing to wait the whole night outside the Apple store to buy a new iPhone, it has immense brand loyalty even though Macbooks and iPhones aren’t technologically unique or superior. In fact, other brands have better features, such as Samsung, Huawei and Xiaomi. but lower prices. Nevertheless, Apple seems to break sales records year after year. According to a study published in the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, low self-esteem is a big factor in whether a person will buy luxury goods that he may not be able to afford. For the lower-class, luxury goods can increase self-esteem and provide a sense of accomplishment. Whether in the UK and other countries. People use luxury goods to show off their success and flaunt wealth. They tend to purchase luxury goods in order to give in to hedonistic tendencies. In short, commodity fetishism has transformed to luxury fetishism in contemporary society.There is an obvious example of commodity fetishism in people’s daily life, take myself for example. I consider myself to be a very utilitarian and frugal person, therefore drawn strongly towards a use-value oriented manner of consumption, however, I still can find signs of commodity fetishism on myself. One example would be watching new films. New films obviously have no greater use-value to me than older films that I haven’t yet seen, but the commercial exploitation, hype, advertising, and inflated exchange-value always make me choose to watch a new film even though they are mostly lower quality than those that have stood the test of time. An obvious example of the film is every year Marvel superhero films. They are typically commercial films, produced in very short periods of time, attracting young people with amazing special effects and exaggerated propaganda and hype. Another example, also in the field of entertainment, would be computer games. New games at the height of their exchange-value, often require expensive hardware and CPU, are no better than slightly older games at a fraction of the cost.Even though sometimes introspection can be difficult for people, however in others, it is quite easy to see wanton consumer fetishism. For example, some of the people would never think of to buy a generic bread, even they know that they are produced in the same mill and assembly line. Another example is the consumption of beer in the USA, Beer industry is among the early group of industries that opens to overseas market in the USA, but in the domestic market, the majority of beer produced and consumed in the USA is heavily advertised and hype, but the quality is not satisfactory. However, people see nothing inherently queer about pounding down large quantities of tasteless, watered-down swill. There is another example of commodity fetishism in contemporary society is diamond. Diamond is a lie created by some successful businessmen. Businesses in the diamond industry have been hard hit in many countries in 1938, there have been a number of jewellery business closures and suspension because people discovery huge diamond mines in Australia and Russia. Therefore, some businessmen realized that the jewellery market is not satisfactory in the United States, it was a significantly under-tapped market for diamonds. Plus the oversea diamond industry was in decline. They need to find a way to convince Americans to buy their product. In the end, they successfully did it by using the most mysterious and complicated feeling of the human being which is love.They start to propaganda by using newspapers, magazines and the new medium of movies. Some of them even hold a series of lectures in some universities and high schools, and the topic focused on diamond engagement rings. They constructed the illusion that diamonds means love, the bigger diamond means more love. Because of the special chemical properties of diamond, it is the hardest substance in nature. ‘ diamond also means forever’ was spread in advertisings and romantic movies. Diamond also was described as a form an integral part of young lovers getting married or on their honeymoon. These advertisements appeared everywhere in the USA, even in Hollywood, more and more celebrities start to connect diamond with love on purpose. And it works, in the end of 1944, the sale of diamonds had increased by 55 percent in the United States from just a few years before and was now inexorably tied to love and marriage, as well as being seen as a highly valuable item that would last forever.However, the fact is diamond does not have that many values. Unlike gold, diamond is not an investment — they are a retail product like any other. People always spend more and more money on a little shiny stone, because people mistakenly believe that the diamond is a stable investment and the value will increase in the future. Most people would only get half of what they paid if they tried to sell a diamond ring the day after they bought it. Because there are few couples want to buy a second-hand diamond to represent their love. The idea of diamonds means forever and love is passed on from generation to generation. More and more people hold diamond individually. If people started selling them, the reality of the value would be discovered and the price of cut diamonds would also ultimately no longer be controllable. Therefore, the diamond needs to be held individually forever. In 1971, Harry Oppenheimer commented the diamond industry—– ‘ A degree of control is necessary for the well-being of the industry, not because production is excessive or demand is falling, but simply because wide fluctuations in price, which have, rightly or wrongly, been accepted as normal in the case of most raw materials, would be destructive of public confidence in the case of a pure luxury such as gem diamonds, of which large stocks are held in the form of jewellery by the general public.’Moreover, due to diamond fetishism, a businessman named De Beers cornered the market on the diamond. Because of a virtual monopoly and a series of successful advertisings. The demand for the diamond in the USA stays stable. De Beers is able to set the diamond’s price, no matter the supply fluctuations. Therefore, in public’s mind, more expensive the diamond is, more love can be shown. De Beers repeated these ideas and campaigns throughout Europe and East Asia and it achieves a great success. For example, in 1967, diamond engagement rings only took up nearly five percent in the jewellery market in Japan. However at the end of 1977, more than half of the engagement rings in Japan are diamond, with that number rising steadily ever since. In short, the main reason why the diamond’s price is so high because of prefect business practices and incredibly successful advertising campaigns than the actual inherent value of the stone based on supply and demand, more and more people have realized that diamond real value nowadays.A famous American investigative journalist—-Edward Jay Epstein mentioned in his investigation—‘ In its 1947 strategy plan, the advertising agency strongly emphasized a psychological approach. “We are dealing with a problem in mass psychology. We seek to … strengthen the tradition of the diamond engagement ring — to make it a psychological necessity capable of competing successfully at the retail level with utility goods and services….’Individuals in a capitalist society will treat commodities as if they have an external value instead of the value of the amount of labour used to produce the object. Karl Marx explained the commodity fetishism in this way—-‘ When a piece of wood is turned into a table through human labour, its use-value is clear and, a product, the table remains tied to its material use. However, as soon as the table “emerges as a commodity, it changes into a thing which transcends sensuousness’. To convinced people to believe that there is an extra value to some special goods such as diamond, artwork. The rich people and the celebrities will glorify the material possessions and lifestyles that will influence the lower classes. Moreover, the mass media such as newspaper, magazine, television and internet will spread the idea that the only way to be equal to the upper-class individuals is to buy ostentatious commodities that they would buy. That is why more and more young people are willing to buy luxury. This vicarious living through actively being suggested by the media shows patterns of consumption. This consumption is a type of hedonistic consumerism, and this consumerism goes beyond all necessary and meaningful boundaries by making people get so caught up in consumerism that it becomes the reason for their existence and primary indulgence (Kendall 319). 


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