AbstractThisresearch paper is an in-depth study which links the usage of cellphone whiledriving to the accidents and fatality rate in developing countries.
Due to theemergence of smartphones and high dependability on cellphones and gadgets tocarry on with the daily affairs, the risk associated with the cellphone usagewhile driving has also increased twofold. This research papers covers that indetail and serves as a guide for the teenage students and teachers. Chapter1: Introduction Hypothesis:The pattern of utilizingcell telephones amid driving is expanding enormously.
Usage of cellphones whiledriving can cause lethal accidents and disrupt traffic. Traffic regulationauthorities have been trying to create an awareness among all age groupsregarding the repercussions of cellphone usage while driving. . Casual drivingattitudes of teenagers and many adults have very often become a reason forstreet accidents and mishaps. Accordingto a report, 660000 people across United States tend to use cellphone everydaywhile driving in day time.
Edgar& Synder Associates). Usage of cellphone is very distracting and there are manypeople who are not very good at multi-tasking. This raises the risk ofaccidents while driving.
This research intends to prove that usage of cellphonewhile driving increases the probability and risk factor of accident occurringwhile driving. ResearchQuestions:Q1.What is the durationof a common phone call on cellphones while driving?Q2.
What percentage ofpeople use cellphone in a developed country like United States?Q3 How risky is the usageof cellphone while driving? Objectives:Theproportion of people owning cellphones has been increasing across the globe.Advancements in telecommunications technology and the decreasing cost ofcellphone production has welcomed many new players in the cellphone industry.Across the globe, number of people owning cellphones has increased by 16percent between 2013 and 2017 alone (Statistica). And the proportion isexpected to increase by 6 percent by 2019. This makes it obvious that number of people using cellphonewhile driving is projected to increase as well. This research seeks to createan awareness among all concerned age groups regarding the repercussions ofcellphone usage while driving.
In third world countries like Pakistan, thereare not sufficient resources available to traffic authorities in the launchingof massive awareness campaigns. Due to this, many people in such countriesdon’t even understand the risk associated. Another objective then, of thisresearch is to create awareness among people of such countries.Thisresearch also seeks to convince government officials of such countries tolaunch awareness campaigns and also regulate the usage of cellphone whiledriving. Chapter2: Literature Review RQ1: What can helpaddress the problem of cellphone usage while driving? The problem of cellphoneusage can be addressed in various different ways. People should look forward tothis thing that talking on cellphone can be really dangerous and life takingprocess while one is driving.
So media should be used to cover up for this kindof behaviors of people. Moreover government should take steps to ensure thesafety of people by making them realize on frequent basis that using cellphoneswhile driving can cause serious accidents leading to deaths. Laws should bemade and strict penalties should be applied so that people should pay attentionto the laws and they don’t go wandering off in different directions (Anon,2018). The methods that can beused to prevent this usage are something like this that voicemail featureshould be enabled in the cellphones of people so that the caller gets a messagethat the person is driving and is not available. Cellphone pullovers should be introduced onroads also as they are on airports.
This way the person who is receiving a callcan pullover and see that who is calling and if he has to talk to that personhe should talk and without any kind of interference do his job also like this.Sometimes carpooling can be a beneficial idea, this way when one person isdriving then the other person could easily talk on mobile and likewise when theother person needs to talk they can stop the car and switch paces this way bothof them can easily carry out their business and without the break in thejourney. Mass transit can also be used in this way that people can do thereyapping on mobile phone and there is one single designated driver for thepurpose. Is noise becomes the issue then texting can be used and either waypeople can use cellphones while travelling. There are many kind of software’sin the market that can do the function for the driver, for example a driver canuse a Bluetooth hands free or car’s Bluetooth when he is starting the journeyand when a call comes he can easily pick up the call without getting distractedand this way he can easily talk while driving with having his both of the handsfree for only the purpose of driving. Likewise there are different software’sthat may be able to generate automatic replies or different call divertingfeatures so that the driver is not interrupted while driving and likewise asmooth drive is ensured this way.
So using these methods safety of the drivercan be ensured and accident risks can be reduced (Anon, 2018). RQ 2: What percentage ofpeople use cellphone in a developed country like United States? In the developedcountries this should be kept in mind that people tend to rely on social mediaand or mass media for information and communication and thus this thing hascaused a surge in the number of cellphone usage also among the developedcountries and since the year 2000 there has been a surge of around 1700%(seventeen hundred percent) in the usage of cell in the developed countries.And it is an alarming rise in the number of cellphone users even for adeveloped countries. This rise in cellphone usage can be equally and easilylinked with the usage of internet among the developed countries. This thingshould not be forgotten that people tend to use google maps or apple maps tofind a certain location when they are driving. This can then also be concludedthat people use smart phones over basic cellphones the reason being high specsand different versions of the applications.
Moreover while driving posting aselfie is considered to be cool among the new generation thus we can see thatdue to these reason there is a dramatic increase in the number of cellphoneusers in the last two decades (Pew Research Center’s Global Attitudes Project,2018). RQ3: How risky is the usage of cellphone whiledriving? The usage of cellphonewhile driving is considered to be a risky business as it may cause accidentsleading to death. Risk of crash is substantially increased while using acellphone. The usage of cellphone while driving is also linked with this factthat property is also damaged in this kind of activity. Studies say that usinga cellphone while driving is equally dangerous as being drunk and driving andthis should be enough a proof that how dangerous this activity can be not forthe person but for the people around him or her also.
People using cellphonewhile driving has their reaction time delayed and more kind of trafficaccidents happened. Studies also suggest this thing that people who usecellphones while driving are more attentive towards what they are hearing ascompared to paying attention on the road and this way they tend to end up inmore kind of accidents as they have focus on the thing they are listening to ascompared to on the road. Also, utilizing a cellphone makes impedance on ourfringe vision, like steed signals, rendering us incognizant in regards toobjects we would typically experience no difficulty seeing (for instance, ayoungster in a crosswalk). Maples and partners estimated visual fields on thinkabout members when they were having a cellphone discussion and when they weredefinitely not.
They discovered more noteworthy general choking between thevisual field isopters plotted amid cellphone utilize contrasted and nocellphone utilize. No doubt our mind initiates neurons for exercises thatrequire our consideration, for example, having a cellphone discussion, despitethe fact that we don’t know this is happening. Substantial quantities ofindividuals utilize cellphones while driving and the numbers keep onincreasing. The most recent investigations demonstrate that 8% of driversutilize a cellphone while driving. Drivers on mobile phones will have drivingcapacity like an alcoholic driver and won’t have the capacity to see protestsin their fringe vision. What’s more, these drivers will be four times moreprone to be in an auto collision than drivers not utilizing a cellphone(Bcmj.org, 2018). Cell phone utilize while driving is normal, yet it is broadlyviewed as risky because of its potential for causing occupied driving and mischances.
Because of the quantity of mischances that are identified with directingapproaches a telephone and messaging while at the same time driving, a fewwards have made the utilization of approaching a telephone while drivingunlawful. Numerous wards have established laws to boycott handheld cell phoneutilize. By the by, numerous wards permit utilization of a sans hands gadget.Driving while at the same time utilizing a sans hands gadget isn’t more securethan utilizing a handheld telephone to lead calls, as finished up bycase-hybrid investigations, epidemiological, reenactment, and meta-examination.
Sometimes confinements are coordinated just at minors, the individuals who arerecently qualified permit holders (of all ages), or to drivers in school zones.Notwithstanding voice calling, exercises, for example, messaging while at thesame time driving, web perusing, playing computer games, or telephone use as arule can likewise build the danger of a mishap (Bcmj.org, 2018). Chapter3: Data collection and analysis Methodology:Our research is ofqualitative nature.
We collected our data from online resources and along thatwe got a questionnaire filled by 25 people. The sample contained subjects agingfrom around 18 years old to 35 years old and all of the subjects were regulardrivers. The questions cover the information regarding driving behavior andpatterns of the subjects. The questions asked and the responses of all thesubjects are displayed below. 1) Howold are you? 32 percent of the subjects were reported to be around18-22 years old in age.
40 percent of the individuals were 22-28 years old inage, 16 percent were around 28-30 years old while 12 percent were 30-35 yearsold. 2) Doyou use your cellphone during driving? An overwhelming 60 percent of therespondents said that they do use their cellphones while driving, 20 percentstated that they never use cellphone while driving while equally 20 percent ofthem stated that they do use their cellphones while driving but not veryfrequently. 3) Haveyou ever have had to face any inconvenience because of cellphone usage during driving? Around 48 percent of the respondents stated that theyhad to face inconvenience like minor and major accidents and traffic jams dueto their habit of cellphone usage while driving. 32 percent stated that theynever had to face any problem due to their cellphone habit while 20 percent ofthem stated that had to face the nuisance sometimes but not very often. 4) Doyou consider your habit of cellphone usage during driving to be harmful? 68 percent of the subjects reported thatthey consider their habit of cellphone usage during driving to be harmful whilethe rest of 32 percent stated that they don’t consider it dangerous. 5) Howoften do you fail to abide by the traffic signals because of the distractioncaused by cellphone usage? 56 percent of the respondents claimed that they failto abide by the traffic signals due to cellphone usage.
24 percent of themstated that they do violate the traffic signals due to their habit but not veryfrequently while the rest 20 percent claim they never violated a traffic signalbecause of cellphone usage. 6) Wereyou ever issued a violation ticket by a traffic warden due to your usage ofcellphone while driving? 64 percent of the respondents claimed that they werenever issued a traffic violation ticket by a warden due to cellphone usagewhile driving and the rest of 36 percent stated otherwise. 7) Doyou think law regarding usage of cellphone while driving needs to be enforcedmore effectively? 76 percent people said that they dobelieve that traffic laws regarding cellphone usage need to be enforced moreeffectively and properly. Remaining 24 percent believe that law enforcement isfine enough.
Chapter4: Discussion The issue of cellphoneutilization can be tended to in different distinctive ways. Individuals shouldanticipate this thing that chatting on cellphone can be extremely unsafe andlife taking procedure while one is driving. So media ought to be utilized to concealfor this sort of practices of individuals. Additionally government should finda way to guarantee the wellbeing of individuals by influencing them toacknowledge on visit premise that utilizing cellphones while driving can causegenuine mishaps prompting passings. Laws ought to be made and strictpunishments ought to be connected so individuals should focus on the laws andthey don’t go straying in various ways (Delgado, Wanner and McDonald, 2016).
The strategies that canbe utilized to keep this utilization are something like this that voice messagehighlight ought to be empowered in the cellphones of individuals so the guestgets a message that the individual is driving and isn’t accessible. Cellphonepullovers ought to be presented on streets additionally as they are on airplaneterminals. Thusly the individual who is getting a call would pullover be ableto and see that who is calling and in the event that he needs to converse withthat individual he should talk and with no sort of impedance carry out hisactivity likewise like this. Now and again carpooling can be a useful thought,along these lines when one individual is driving then the other individualcould undoubtedly chat on versatile and in like manner when the otherindividual needs to talk they can stop the auto and switch paces thusly themtwo can without much of a stretch do their business and without the break inthe trip. Mass travel can likewise be utilized as a part of thusly thatindividuals can do there yapping on cell phone and there is one single assigneddriver for the reason (Delgado, Wanner and McDonald, 2016). Is commotion turnsinto the issue then messaging can be utilized and whichever way individuals canutilize cellphones while voyaging. There are numerous sort of programming’s inthe market that can do the capacity for the driver, for instance a driver canutilize a Bluetooth hands free or auto’s Bluetooth when he is beginning the journeyand when a call comes he can undoubtedly get the call without getting divertedand along these lines he can without much of a stretch talk while driving withhaving his both of the hands free for just the motivation behind driving.
Inlike manner there are diverse programming’s that might have the capacity tocreate programmed answers or distinctive call occupying highlights so thedriver isn’t hindered while driving and in like manner a smooth drive isguaranteed along these lines (Kwon, Yoon and Jang, 2014). So utilizing thesetechniques wellbeing of the driver can be guaranteed and mishap dangers can belessened. In the developed nations this ought to be remembered that individualshave a tendency to depend via web-based networking media and additionally broadcommunications for data and correspondence and along these lines this thing hascaused a surge in the quantity of cellphone use likewise among the creatednations and since the year 2000 there has been a surge of around 1700%(seventeen hundred percent) in the utilization of cell in the created nations.What’s more, it is a disturbing ascent in the quantity of cellphone clientsnotwithstanding for a created nations. This ascent in cellphone use can besimilarly and effectively connected with the use of web among the creatednations. This thing ought not be overlooked that individuals tend to utilizegoogle maps or apple maps to locate a specific area when they are driving.
Thiswould then be able to likewise be inferred that individuals utilize advancedcells over essential cellphones the reason being high specs and diverseadaptations of the applications. Additionally while driving posting a selfie isthought to be cool among the new age therefore we can see that because of thesereason there is an emotional increment in the quantity of cellphone clientsover the most recent two decades. The utilization of cellphone while driving isthought to be a hazardous business as it might cause mischances promptingdemise . Danger of crash is considerably expanded while utilizing a cellphone.The use of cellphone while driving is additionally connected with this realitythat property is likewise harmed in this sort of action. Studies say thatutilizing a cellphone while driving is similarly unsafe as being tanked anddriving and this ought to be sufficient a proof that how risky this action canbe not for the individual but rather for the general population around him orher moreover. Individuals utilizing cellphone while driving has their responsetime deferred and more sort of car crashes happened.
Concentrates likewisepropose this thing that individuals who utilize cellphones while driving aremore mindful towards what they are hearing when contrasted with focusing outand about and along these lines they tend to wind up in more sort of mishaps asthey have concentrate on the thing they are tuning in to when contrasted without and about. Likewise, using a cellphone influences impedance on ourperiphery vision, to like steed signals, rendering us incognizant concerningobjects we would normally encounter no trouble seeing (for example, an adolescentin a crosswalk). Maples and accomplices assessed visual fields on considerindividuals when they were having a cellphone discourse and when they wereunquestionably not. They found more imperative general gagging between thevisual field isopters plotted in the midst of cellphone use differentiated andno cellphone use. Presumably our mind starts neurons for practices that requireour thought, for instance, having a cellphone talk, in spite of the way that wedon’t have the foggiest idea about this is going on (Carpenter and Nguyen,2014). Generous amounts of people use cellphones while driving and the numberscontinue expanding. The latest examinations show that 8% of drivers use acellphone while driving. Drivers on cell phones will have driving limit like aheavy drinker driver and won’t have the ability to see dissents in theirperiphery vision.
Likewise, these drivers will be four times more inclined tobe in a car crash than drivers not using a cellphone. Mobile phone use whiledriving is typical, yet it is extensively seen as dangerous as a result of itspotential for causing possible driving and setbacks. As a result of the amountof incidents that are related to coordinating methodologies a phone andinforming while in the meantime driving, a couple of wards have made the usageof moving toward a phone while driving unlawful. Various wards have built uplaws to blacklist handheld wireless use. Coincidentally, various wards allowusage of a sans hands device. Driving while in the meantime using a sans handsdevice isn’t more secure than using a handheld phone to lead calls, ascompleted up by case-crossover examinations, epidemiological, reenactment, andmeta-examination.
Some of the time repressions are facilitated exactly atminors, the people who are as of late qualified allow holders (of any age), orto drivers in school zones. Despite voice calling, works out, for instance,informing while in the meantime driving, web scrutinizing, playing PCamusements, or phone use when in doubt can in like manner fabricate the perilof an accident. ConclusionCelltelephone use amid driving is a reason behind street mishaps. Law EnforcementAgencies are attempting their best to control street mishaps. Introduction ofE-Tracking gadgets would help in regulation of traffic laws and help controltraffic related accidents. It would check the special treatment given to theVIPs.
Solidguidelines for issuing driving licenseto adolescents would likewise help in checking mishaps. It would helpadolescents in getting to be develop drivers. Guidelines and regulations are inplace yet they need further changes. Government is attempting to enhance theusage of law and it appears the Government will help decrease the proportion ofmischances which happens because of use of cell telephone amid driving.
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2018.Anon, (2018). online Available at:http://www.slate.com/news-and-politics/2018/01/the-rationale-behind-republicans-shithole-cover-up.htmlAccessed 21 Jan. 2018.Kwon, O.
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SafetyScience, 70, pp.50-57.Delgado, M., Wanner, K. and McDonald, C. (2016).
Adolescent Cellphone Use While Driving: An Overview of the Literature andPromising Future Directions for Prevention. Media and Communication, 4(3),p.79.Carpenter, C.
and Nguyen, H. (2014). Effects of aDriver Cellphone Ban on Overall, Handheld, and Hands-Free Cellphone Use WhileDriving: New Evidence from Canada. Health Economics, 24(11), pp.