Abstract— This paper help us to understand and avoiding the concept of possible
risks of cloud computingsFF. Cloud computing is emerging from internet technology
that provides a computing platform to individuals and organizations to perform
different varieties of tasks such as: business applications, customized system
software, developing reliable and efficient network environment. In this paper
we describes how can we overcome these potential risk and threats while include
securing our data over a cloud by adapting an effective security policy.

Keywords—Cloud Computing, Potential
risk, Cryptography, Cloud Database, Securities.

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Cloud computing has
generated significant interest in everyone’s life. It is a powerful computing
model came into existence around the end of 2007 1 that can facilitate
individuals and organizations to create a realistic network environment by
developing system software over a cloud.

 Cloud provides applications and storage spaces
over the internet as services with little bit cost. Now a days we all utilize
these services in our daily life such as: web-based email services i.e.
(Google, Yahoo, Hotmail); different social networking sites i.e. (Facebook,
LinkedIn, Twitter); cloud storage like (Dropbox, One-Drive, Google-Drive). The
basic principal of cloud computing is to shift the computing from the local
computer into the network 2.

Today the most important
computing technology we experiencing are cloud computing which is one of the
great advancement in computing technology. It attentions on the economical use
of capitals obtainable which facilitate effective and well-organized way of the
computing by providing application software on-demand of SaaS or of Software’s
as a Services.

Nonetheless, cloud computing
is an significant paradigm, however security and confidentiality risk in cloud
computing and emerging efficient and operative solution are critical for its
success.  Security issues associate with
cloud computing happens every day like cybercrime. Varieties of different
techniques are used by hackers to gain unauthorized access to the cloud for
their illegal activities.

article illustrates the important issues of cloud computing to understanding
and avoiding the potential risk, threats, security and privacy challenges in
cloud. We also deliberate many approaches to overcome these tasks and also
explore or discover future work required to provide operative trustworthy cloud
computing environment.


Cloud Computing: Definition and Features

Cloud computing is a sole computing model
that permitting individuals and establishments a suitable and on-demand network
access to a communal pool of configurable computing incomes such as networks,
storage, applications, server and services which are dependable and operative with
insignificant management effort for computing.

For cloud computing, it must be understand
the basic principal characteristic of cloud computing that how individuals and
organizations use these services and how possible risks can be evading.

There are five-key characteristics
including on-demand self-services, universal network access, autonomous
resources, swift elasticity and measured services of cloud computing. These
characteristic are absolute and transparently. In its report of significant
clouds characteristics,3 the US National-Institute-of-standards-and-Technologies
(NIST) provides IT, services.


On-demand services:

User can order and mange services without human
interaction with the service provider for example a web portal and management

Universal network Access:

Cloud facilities are retrieved through the network (typically
the Internet), by using standard mechanisms and protocol.

Resource Pooling:

Computing resources are used to deliver cloud services
that are understood using similar infrastructure communal between all service

Swift elasticity:

Resources or incomes can be climbed
up and down quickly and elasticity.

Measured Services:

Measured services are reference to services where the
cloud provider optimized or monitors the use of computing resources such as:
automated resource allocation, load balancing, access control, capacity
planning and metering tools at some level of concept 4, 5.

Applications running or being
developing for cloud computing platform has various challenges of security and
privacy depending on its underlying models. There are three-key-models for distribution
in clouds computing such as; Saas (Software as a Service), IaaS (Infrastructures
as a Services)  and PaaS (Stages as a
Services). Cloud computing builds greatly on abilities obtainable via many core

Infrastructure as a services

IaaS also called bottom layer
is a one of the three fundamental services model of cloud computing. As with
all cloud computing services it afford access to computing resources in a
virtualized environment and can be used for operative and effortlessly climbable
IT solution where difficulty and expenditures are subcontracted to the cloud
provider. It offering some different features such as; virtual server space,
network access/connection, bandwidth, IP addresses and load balancing.

Platform as a service (PaaS):

          It is a type of cloud computing that offers a platform
and environment to permit designers or developers to form application
on-demand. It permits users to make software application using tools supplied
by the supplier. Some features that (PaaS) contribution are; operating system,
Database management system, server software, tools of design and development
and presenting.

Software as a service (SaaS):

Defines clouds
services where entities and organizations are able to access or reachable
software applications and wides variety of tasks over the internet world usually.
Google, Twitter, Facebook are some examples of (SaaS). It can be climbable with
promotions obtainable on demand.




Many cloud
computing security requirements can be solvable by this cryptography technique.

Fig 1 – 3-Key cloud
delivery Model

computing services are separated into four placement    models.

Public Cloud;

Data is stored on shared server and is not separated from the
general population. Facebook and Gmail are examples of services where data is
stored on a public cloud.

Private Cloud;

Data is stored in dedicated resources, not on shared server. This is
less cost effective but often the choice when sensitive information is present.

Hybrid Cloud;

Data is kept on mixture of devoted and shared resources or incomes.

Community Cloud;

Data is stored on shared servers, but customers are grouped together
by some level of organization. This type of facility is often applied when
cloud providers required to manage agreements obligations.






III.  cloud database services

Due to high demands,
clouds providers are contribution a new services known as Database as a service
or DBaaS besides the traditionals services i.e. (IaaS, PaaS, SaaS) which is an
essentially on-demand database for consumers from the cloud over the Internet

database service is a necessary portion of clouds computing-technologies. Due
to advancements in network technology, the cost and latency of transmitting
huge amount of data from long distances has decreased significant whereas 6 in
meantime, the operational and management cost of database maintenance are
several time higher than its initial cost. Cloud service provider offers these
solutions by dividing data from large databases and spreading it across
different servers for providing parallel processing and computing for consumer.

Cloud service
provider offers multi-instance model for Database as a service (DBaaS)
environments. In this model a unique DBMS on a dedicated virtual machine is
running with specific customer. This feature provides better control over
administrative and other security issues and user authentication.

In general, the
multi-instance model of database cloud computing is highly recommended for
secure services because of its certain security features like data encryption.

IV. Security

There are number of
security concerns in Database cloud environment that organizations have to take
into consideration for data security. The main aspects of database security in
the cloud is to secure sensitive data while in rest or transmitted and in use
as well as data access control 7. That says;

To ensure
that data on cloud does not get corrupted or hijacked, then it is important to
have safe and secure procedures for protecting data transfer to and from the data
Bases in the clouds.

To ensure
confidentiality, then it is important that outsourced data which is stored in
cloud databases should be encrypted at all times.

To ensure
integrity, then it is important that the data which is stored at cloud database
platform needs to be controlled and monitored properly.   

There are different
standard communication security protocols and procedures are available that are
used for protecting data. The main security challenges faced by cloud database
services are;


One of the critical
security aspects that organizations need consideration is that all system
resources are accessible and usable to individuals or organizations. Normally
there are many threats to availability which includes DOS attacks, equipment
failures and natural disasters in cloud. Infrastructure design of cloud
computing service to provide high availability and reliability are suffer from

An Access Control Issues:

It is one of the main security threats of cloud databases that is
the loss of access control. When sensitive data migrate to cloud brings more
security risks of lose physically, logically and personal control over the
data. In order to ensure security of sensitive data, it is very critical for
cloud database administrator to proper control and monitoring procedures.

Auditing and monitoring issues:

 Main welfares or benefits of clouds computing
are providing elasticity and flexibility but it carries dissimilar securities
of risks. Clouds databases scale up and down frequently for satisfying customer
needs. Due to all these issues which results in non-static atmosphere where clients
have no visibility or accessibility of data in the physical infrastructures or

Data Sanitization:

Sanitization is
another security risk in cloud computing which involves the deletion/removal of
data from storage media by overwriting. 7 In cloud atmospheres, data from dissimilar
clients, individuals and organizations are physically co-located collected,
which confuses the cleansing procedures.

Fig 2 – Databases Cloud Computing

Defining potential risks of cloud

Potential risks refer to any risk
associated with an action that is possible, in certain circumstance. Generally
data security risks arise from cloud computing relate to an increase in threats
of data confidentiality due to common infrastructure, lack of privacy, data
securities and data segregations.

Presently, the securities of model for
cloud appears to be relatively simpler and fewer safe. Cloud infrastructure
typically rely on web forms (over SSL) to create and manage account information
for end-user, and allows user to reset password and received password via email
in an unsafe and unencrypted communication.

VI.   possible potential risks

Some possible potential
risks of cloud computing are;

Data Security:

There are number of
threats associated with cloud data services, not only covering traditional
security threats like network spy or illegal invasion attacks but also include
specific cloud computing threats for example; side channel attacks,
virtualization vulnerabilities.

Data Loss:

Data loss is
applicable in both state as in rest and when in motion (transmitted over the
network). Data loss occur due to various reasons, including; data corruption,
data stolen, data storage devices physically damage or stolen, overwritten by
attackers, network penetration or intervention attack.

Unauthorized Access:

Unauthorized access
is the biggest threats for the user of cloud computing. The probability that an
unauthorized access occur mostly in cloud computing rather than in traditional
system where functional management are accessible only few administrators.

Internet Protocol:

Cloud computing
services are accessed by internet using standard protocols which must be
un-trusted such as security breach..

Online Cyber Theft:

Cloud computing
services are providing powerful processing and computing huge amount of storage
space. Customer may be have some sensitive data stored on clouds become an
attractive target for cyber criminals. Online cyber thieves can steals
passwords to access user’s accounts to execute unlawful actions.

Shared Technology Issues:

The cloud services
provider use climbable infrastructure or organizations as SaaS, PaaS, IaaS where
all of communal technologies can be attacked to attainment unlawful access or
accessible to data.

Data Breach:

Data breach is one of
the biggest threats of cloud computing in which sensitive, protected and
confidential data is stolen, viewed, copying or transmitted by a to do so unlawful
access or accessible.

Denial of Services:

There are various
ways an attackers can disrupt the services in virtual cloud computing
environment by attacking against the cloud service to reduce it unreachable, so
troublesome the services of clouds computing.

Lack of control:

Typically there are
many issues due to lack of control over a data in cloud computing which include
lack of transparency, data mining techniques to analyse delicate users data and
mobiles devices where data is handover locally.

Insecure Interfaces and APIs:

Several clouds
services on the internet are visible by application programming interfaces.
That’s way APIs are accessible or reachable from anywhere on the internet where
an attacker achievement a tokens used by the client to access the services via
services API are used to function of the clients data.

Vendor Lock-in:

Vendor lock-in is a
common or rear problems in clouds computing where clients are reliant on on
single clouds provider technologies and cannot travel by one vendor to another
in future without legal constraints and costs.

Reduced Operational Governance Control:

Due to reducing level
of operational governance control may increase the risk associated with the
operational control. For example; longer distance between cloud customer and
cloud provider makes unreliable network connection.

Virtual exploits:

There are huge users
of virtualization, but there are different risks posed by the physical machine
and also including exploits i.e. its own unique or sole threats that goal the
virtual server’s hosts and the guests.


Fig 3 – Potential Risks

potential risk in cloud

In order to provide
best quality of services, the cloud service provider of cloud computing
infrastructure are responsible for ensuring secure cloud environment by
defining different security policies and advance security technologies. There
are some different precautionary security procedures that can be adopting to
avoid potential risk in cloud computing for securing data.

Security Policy Enhancement:

There are
different scenarios that may serve for security policy enhancement. Assume that
with a valid credit card someone can utilize resources which are offered by
cloud services provider. Through this hackers can easily take advantage to
conduct malicious activities like attacking and spamming other computing
system. Such abuse behaviour caused by weak registration systems, credit card
frauds monitoring and block of public black lists could be applied 8.

Identity and Access Management:

Identity and
Access Management (IAM) is the securities restraint that allows the correct
individuals to access the resources or incomes at the perfect times for the exact
causes or reasons. IAM can ensure only authorized users to access sensitive and
private data and access control mechanisms of data stored in the cloud to the
end user’s. Not just only do with the physical computing system it will also
monitoring the traffic control access to the data that is restricted by the
security technologies. There are different common tools such as firewalls that
are used to restrict access from un-trusted resources and malicious activities.

Data Protection:

To ensure data protection of your data,
encryption must be very important when storing information in cloud computing
to protect it from unauthorized viewer. There are different security tools that
deal with data breaches threats. These tools include; data loss prevention
system, behaviour pattern detection tools, format preserving and encryption
tools, authentication and authorization technologies 9, 10.


Another way is to take back-up of the data you store in the cloud. If
it is threatened then you will be able to recover information. There is another choice to customise strategies to deliver another
level of securities. We can do this by applying a system that defends information’s
in association to its compassion by skimming in the suitable instruction so
that the recognitions of threats and action should take places the priority of
the information.

Encryption Consideration:

   The best ways to ensure confidentiality of
sensitive data in the cloud computing environment is to use encryption for data
in transmitted as well as data at rest. There are basically three encryption
models are available to a cloud consumer for data.

encryption: Encryption of the database that is based on standard encryption

encryption: Encryption of the database that is based on standard encryption

 Full encryption: Encryption of the database that is based on cloud provider’s
encryption technique

Management Techniques and Strategies:

Management strategies
and techniques are characteristically involved many tasks including performances
monitoring (response times, latency, up-time) securities and compliances
auditing and management, beginning and supervision tragedy recoveries. While
clouds computing rising more composite or complex and a extensive varieties of privates, hybrids, and public clouds-based systems and infrastructure or
organizations already in use, so clouds management tools required to be just as
flexible and climbable as its clouds computing strategies.

Fig 4 – Secure Cloud


Cloud Computing benefits in databases

Now a day, cloud
become more popular not only for storage but also for computing needs. To
analyse and evaluate the security techniques for data protection in the cloud
computing, cloud service provider classified them in four different sections
according to the security mechanisms that they provide are; authentication,
confidentiality, authorization and access control which brings consumer
satisfaction for data stored in cloud computing.

By adopting cloud
database will lower all operational expenses and IT complexities of any
business. It will help to replace costly business software because it requires
no traditional procedures, licences, installations, maintenance and management
by internal IT staff.

There is no doubt
that cloud databases can heap huge amount of benefits from cloud computing to
facilitate consumer effectively and efficiently with secure security
mechanisms. There are multiple advantages of using cloud databases technology
for businesses such like reliability, manageability, strategic edge, cost
saving, economics, scalability, empowerment etc.


 Fig 5 – Cloud Database


Conclusion and future work

This paper has been developed to understand and
avoiding potential risk that can be faced in cloud databases. Cloud users
enjoys many different benefits that cloud computing brings where security is
key challenge. The main goal is to analyse and evaluate
the security techniques in cloud computing for data protection that are already
accepted from the cloud service providers which includes authentication,
confidentiality, access control and authorization.

 The security issues in cloud that must be
conceder very important is a proper data security in the cloud computing as
abuse use of cloud computational resources, cloud securities attacks and data or
openings breaches. I recommended some important relating to data protection security
measures in the cloud computing that must be taken into account. As cloud
computing is in continual development in order to provide secure data security
protections its need more effort to solve these security risks.



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