Abstract— This paper help us to understand and avoiding the concept of possiblerisks of cloud computingsFF.
Cloud computing is emerging from internet technologythat provides a computing platform to individuals and organizations to performdifferent varieties of tasks such as: business applications, customized systemsoftware, developing reliable and efficient network environment. In this paperwe describes how can we overcome these potential risk and threats while includesecuring our data over a cloud by adapting an effective security policy.Keywords—Cloud Computing, Potentialrisk, Cryptography, Cloud Database, Securities.I. IntroductionCloud computing hasgenerated significant interest in everyone’s life. It is a powerful computingmodel came into existence around the end of 2007 1 that can facilitateindividuals and organizations to create a realistic network environment bydeveloping system software over a cloud. Cloud provides applications and storage spacesover the internet as services with little bit cost.
Now a days we all utilizethese services in our daily life such as: web-based email services i.e.(Google, Yahoo, Hotmail); different social networking sites i.e. (Facebook,LinkedIn, Twitter); cloud storage like (Dropbox, One-Drive, Google-Drive). Thebasic principal of cloud computing is to shift the computing from the localcomputer into the network 2.
Today the most importantcomputing technology we experiencing are cloud computing which is one of thegreat advancement in computing technology. It attentions on the economical useof capitals obtainable which facilitate effective and well-organized way of thecomputing by providing application software on-demand of SaaS or of Software’sas a Services.Nonetheless, cloud computingis an significant paradigm, however security and confidentiality risk in cloudcomputing and emerging efficient and operative solution are critical for itssuccess. Security issues associate withcloud computing happens every day like cybercrime. Varieties of differenttechniques are used by hackers to gain unauthorized access to the cloud fortheir illegal activities.Thisarticle illustrates the important issues of cloud computing to understandingand avoiding the potential risk, threats, security and privacy challenges incloud. We also deliberate many approaches to overcome these tasks and alsoexplore or discover future work required to provide operative trustworthy cloudcomputing environment. II.
Cloud Computing: Definition and FeaturesCloud computing is a sole computing modelthat permitting individuals and establishments a suitable and on-demand networkaccess to a communal pool of configurable computing incomes such as networks,storage, applications, server and services which are dependable and operative withinsignificant management effort for computing.For cloud computing, it must be understandthe basic principal characteristic of cloud computing that how individuals andorganizations use these services and how possible risks can be evading.There are five-key characteristicsincluding on-demand self-services, universal network access, autonomousresources, swift elasticity and measured services of cloud computing. Thesecharacteristic are absolute and transparently. In its report of significantclouds characteristics,3 the US National-Institute-of-standards-and-Technologies(NIST) provides IT, services. · On-demand services:User can order and mange services without humaninteraction with the service provider for example a web portal and managementinterface.· Universal network Access:Cloud facilities are retrieved through the network (typicallythe Internet), by using standard mechanisms and protocol.
· Resource Pooling: Computing resources are used to deliver cloud servicesthat are understood using similar infrastructure communal between all serviceusers.· Swift elasticity:Resources or incomes can be climbedup and down quickly and elasticity.· Measured Services:Measured services are reference to services where thecloud provider optimized or monitors the use of computing resources such as:automated resource allocation, load balancing, access control, capacityplanning and metering tools at some level of concept 4, 5.Applications running or beingdeveloping for cloud computing platform has various challenges of security andprivacy depending on its underlying models. There are three-key-models for distributionin clouds computing such as; Saas (Software as a Service), IaaS (Infrastructuresas a Services) and PaaS (Stages as aServices). Cloud computing builds greatly on abilities obtainable via many coretechnologies:· Infrastructure as a services(IaaS):IaaS also called bottom layeris a one of the three fundamental services model of cloud computing. As withall cloud computing services it afford access to computing resources in avirtualized environment and can be used for operative and effortlessly climbableIT solution where difficulty and expenditures are subcontracted to the cloudprovider. It offering some different features such as; virtual server space,network access/connection, bandwidth, IP addresses and load balancing.
· Platform as a service (PaaS): It is a type of cloud computing that offers a platformand environment to permit designers or developers to form applicationon-demand. It permits users to make software application using tools suppliedby the supplier. Some features that (PaaS) contribution are; operating system,Database management system, server software, tools of design and developmentand presenting. · Software as a service (SaaS):Defines cloudsservices where entities and organizations are able to access or reachablesoftware applications and wides variety of tasks over the internet world usually.Google, Twitter, Facebook are some examples of (SaaS). It can be climbable withpromotions obtainable on demand. · Cryptography;Many cloudcomputing security requirements can be solvable by this cryptography technique.Fig 1 – 3-Key clouddelivery ModelCloudcomputing services are separated into four placement models.
· Public Cloud;Data is stored on shared server and is not separated from thegeneral population. Facebook and Gmail are examples of services where data isstored on a public cloud.· Private Cloud;Data is stored in dedicated resources, not on shared server. This isless cost effective but often the choice when sensitive information is present.· Hybrid Cloud;Data is kept on mixture of devoted and shared resources or incomes.· Community Cloud;Data is stored on shared servers, but customers are grouped togetherby some level of organization. This type of facility is often applied whencloud providers required to manage agreements obligations. III.
cloud database servicesDue to high demands,clouds providers are contribution a new services known as Database as a serviceor DBaaS besides the traditionals services i.e. (IaaS, PaaS, SaaS) which is anessentially on-demand database for consumers from the cloud over the InternetOutsourcingdatabase service is a necessary portion of clouds computing-technologies. Dueto advancements in network technology, the cost and latency of transmittinghuge amount of data from long distances has decreased significant whereas 6 inmeantime, the operational and management cost of database maintenance areseveral time higher than its initial cost. Cloud service provider offers thesesolutions by dividing data from large databases and spreading it acrossdifferent servers for providing parallel processing and computing for consumer.Cloud serviceprovider offers multi-instance model for Database as a service (DBaaS)environments. In this model a unique DBMS on a dedicated virtual machine isrunning with specific customer.
This feature provides better control overadministrative and other security issues and user authentication.In general, themulti-instance model of database cloud computing is highly recommended forsecure services because of its certain security features like data encryption.IV. SecuritychallengesThere are number ofsecurity concerns in Database cloud environment that organizations have to takeinto consideration for data security. The main aspects of database security inthe cloud is to secure sensitive data while in rest or transmitted and in useas well as data access control 7. That says;· To ensurethat data on cloud does not get corrupted or hijacked, then it is important tohave safe and secure procedures for protecting data transfer to and from the dataBases in the clouds.
· To ensureconfidentiality, then it is important that outsourced data which is stored incloud databases should be encrypted at all times.· To ensureintegrity, then it is important that the data which is stored at cloud databaseplatform needs to be controlled and monitored properly. There are differentstandard communication security protocols and procedures are available that areused for protecting data. The main security challenges faced by cloud databaseservices are;· Availability; One of the criticalsecurity aspects that organizations need consideration is that all systemresources are accessible and usable to individuals or organizations. Normallythere are many threats to availability which includes DOS attacks, equipmentfailures and natural disasters in cloud. Infrastructure design of cloudcomputing service to provide high availability and reliability are suffer fromunplanned.· An Access Control Issues:It is one of the main security threats of cloud databases that isthe loss of access control. When sensitive data migrate to cloud brings moresecurity risks of lose physically, logically and personal control over thedata.
In order to ensure security of sensitive data, it is very critical forcloud database administrator to proper control and monitoring procedures.· Auditing and monitoring issues: Main welfares or benefits of clouds computingare providing elasticity and flexibility but it carries dissimilar securitiesof risks. Clouds databases scale up and down frequently for satisfying customerneeds. Due to all these issues which results in non-static atmosphere where clientshave no visibility or accessibility of data in the physical infrastructures ororganization.· Data Sanitization:Sanitization isanother security risk in cloud computing which involves the deletion/removal ofdata from storage media by overwriting.
7 In cloud atmospheres, data from dissimilarclients, individuals and organizations are physically co-located collected,which confuses the cleansing procedures.Fig 2 – Databases Cloud ComputingV. Defining potential risks of cloudPotential risks refer to any riskassociated with an action that is possible, in certain circumstance. Generallydata security risks arise from cloud computing relate to an increase in threatsof data confidentiality due to common infrastructure, lack of privacy, datasecurities and data segregations.Presently, the securities of model forcloud appears to be relatively simpler and fewer safe. Cloud infrastructuretypically rely on web forms (over SSL) to create and manage account informationfor end-user, and allows user to reset password and received password via emailin an unsafe and unencrypted communication.VI. possible potential risks Some possible potentialrisks of cloud computing are;· Data Security:There are number ofthreats associated with cloud data services, not only covering traditionalsecurity threats like network spy or illegal invasion attacks but also includespecific cloud computing threats for example; side channel attacks,virtualization vulnerabilities.
· Data Loss:Data loss isapplicable in both state as in rest and when in motion (transmitted over thenetwork). Data loss occur due to various reasons, including; data corruption,data stolen, data storage devices physically damage or stolen, overwritten byattackers, network penetration or intervention attack.· Unauthorized Access:Unauthorized accessis the biggest threats for the user of cloud computing. The probability that anunauthorized access occur mostly in cloud computing rather than in traditionalsystem where functional management are accessible only few administrators.· Internet Protocol:Cloud computingservices are accessed by internet using standard protocols which must beun-trusted such as security breach.. · Online Cyber Theft:Cloud computingservices are providing powerful processing and computing huge amount of storagespace. Customer may be have some sensitive data stored on clouds become anattractive target for cyber criminals.
Online cyber thieves can stealspasswords to access user’s accounts to execute unlawful actions.· Shared Technology Issues:The cloud servicesprovider use climbable infrastructure or organizations as SaaS, PaaS, IaaS whereall of communal technologies can be attacked to attainment unlawful access oraccessible to data.· Data Breach:Data breach is one ofthe biggest threats of cloud computing in which sensitive, protected andconfidential data is stolen, viewed, copying or transmitted by a to do so unlawfulaccess or accessible.· Denial of Services:There are variousways an attackers can disrupt the services in virtual cloud computingenvironment by attacking against the cloud service to reduce it unreachable, sotroublesome the services of clouds computing.
· Lack of control:Typically there aremany issues due to lack of control over a data in cloud computing which includelack of transparency, data mining techniques to analyse delicate users data andmobiles devices where data is handover locally.· Insecure Interfaces and APIs:Several cloudsservices on the internet are visible by application programming interfaces.That’s way APIs are accessible or reachable from anywhere on the internet wherean attacker achievement a tokens used by the client to access the services viaservices API are used to function of the clients data.· Vendor Lock-in:Vendor lock-in is acommon or rear problems in clouds computing where clients are reliant on onsingle clouds provider technologies and cannot travel by one vendor to anotherin future without legal constraints and costs.· Reduced Operational Governance Control:Due to reducing levelof operational governance control may increase the risk associated with theoperational control.
For example; longer distance between cloud customer andcloud provider makes unreliable network connection.· Virtual exploits:There are huge usersof virtualization, but there are different risks posed by the physical machineand also including exploits i.e. its own unique or sole threats that goal thevirtual server’s hosts and the guests. Fig 3 – Potential RisksVII. Avoidingpotential risk in cloud In order to providebest quality of services, the cloud service provider of cloud computinginfrastructure are responsible for ensuring secure cloud environment bydefining different security policies and advance security technologies.
Thereare some different precautionary security procedures that can be adopting toavoid potential risk in cloud computing for securing data. · Security Policy Enhancement:There aredifferent scenarios that may serve for security policy enhancement. Assume thatwith a valid credit card someone can utilize resources which are offered bycloud services provider.
Through this hackers can easily take advantage toconduct malicious activities like attacking and spamming other computingsystem. Such abuse behaviour caused by weak registration systems, credit cardfrauds monitoring and block of public black lists could be applied 8.· Identity and Access Management:Identity andAccess Management (IAM) is the securities restraint that allows the correctindividuals to access the resources or incomes at the perfect times for the exactcauses or reasons. IAM can ensure only authorized users to access sensitive andprivate data and access control mechanisms of data stored in the cloud to theend user’s. Not just only do with the physical computing system it will alsomonitoring the traffic control access to the data that is restricted by thesecurity technologies.
There are different common tools such as firewalls thatare used to restrict access from un-trusted resources and malicious activities.· Data Protection:To ensure data protection of your data,encryption must be very important when storing information in cloud computingto protect it from unauthorized viewer. There are different security tools thatdeal with data breaches threats. These tools include; data loss preventionsystem, behaviour pattern detection tools, format preserving and encryptiontools, authentication and authorization technologies 9, 10.· Prevention:Another way is to take back-up of the data you store in the cloud.
Ifit is threatened then you will be able to recover information. There is another choice to customise strategies to deliver anotherlevel of securities. We can do this by applying a system that defends information’sin association to its compassion by skimming in the suitable instruction sothat the recognitions of threats and action should take places the priority ofthe information.
· Encryption Consideration: The best ways to ensure confidentiality ofsensitive data in the cloud computing environment is to use encryption for datain transmitted as well as data at rest. There are basically three encryptionmodels are available to a cloud consumer for data. Partialencryption: Encryption of the database that is based on standard encryptiontechniques. Fullencryption: Encryption of the database that is based on standard encryptiontechniques. Full encryption: Encryption of the database that is based on cloud provider’sencryption technique· Management Techniques and Strategies:Management strategiesand techniques are characteristically involved many tasks including performancesmonitoring (response times, latency, up-time) securities and compliancesauditing and management, beginning and supervision tragedy recoveries. Whileclouds computing rising more composite or complex and a extensive varieties of privates, hybrids, and public clouds-based systems and infrastructure ororganizations already in use, so clouds management tools required to be just asflexible and climbable as its clouds computing strategies.Fig 4 – Secure CloudProcedures VIII. Cloud Computing benefits in databases Now a day, cloudbecome more popular not only for storage but also for computing needs.
Toanalyse and evaluate the security techniques for data protection in the cloudcomputing, cloud service provider classified them in four different sectionsaccording to the security mechanisms that they provide are; authentication,confidentiality, authorization and access control which brings consumersatisfaction for data stored in cloud computing.By adopting clouddatabase will lower all operational expenses and IT complexities of anybusiness. It will help to replace costly business software because it requiresno traditional procedures, licences, installations, maintenance and managementby internal IT staff.There is no doubtthat cloud databases can heap huge amount of benefits from cloud computing tofacilitate consumer effectively and efficiently with secure securitymechanisms. There are multiple advantages of using cloud databases technologyfor businesses such like reliability, manageability, strategic edge, costsaving, economics, scalability, empowerment etc. Fig 5 – Cloud Database IX.Conclusion and future workThis paper has been developed to understand andavoiding potential risk that can be faced in cloud databases. Cloud usersenjoys many different benefits that cloud computing brings where security iskey challenge.
The main goal is to analyse and evaluatethe security techniques in cloud computing for data protection that are alreadyaccepted from the cloud service providers which includes authentication,confidentiality, access control and authorization. The security issues in cloud that must beconceder very important is a proper data security in the cloud computing asabuse use of cloud computational resources, cloud securities attacks and data oropenings breaches. I recommended some important relating to data protection securitymeasures in the cloud computing that must be taken into account. As cloudcomputing is in continual development in order to provide secure data securityprotections its need more effort to solve these security risks. X. References1 Lizhe Wang, Gregor vonLaszewski, Andrew Yoinge, Xi He, Marcel Kunze, Jie Tao, Cheng Fu, “Cloudcomputing: a perspective study”,generation computing , (volume. 28,.issues.
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