AbstractIntroductionTheadoption rate of Smartphones and mobile apps overpass the adoption rate ofpersonal computer. That’s due to its portability, enriched connectivity,efficiency, feasibility and the amount of miniature sensors attached to them.Smartphoneshave evolved from the essential usage like making and receiving calls andmessages, smartphones has become a portal camera, video recorder, soundrecorder, organizer, and lately they become bank cards through Near FieldCommunication (NFC).Theselittle portal devices have more connectivity sensors than modern laptops, likeGPS, Bluetooth, LTE, 4G and Wi-Fi; even your smartphone can react as a hotspotand provide internet connectivity your laptop or other devices.Peoplefound to use mobile applications more than traditional websites or webapplications, and that led also the wide use and evolvement of mobileapplications.
These days’smartphones has embedded miniature sensors, sensors that can be found intraditional Healthcare clinics and Hospitals to capturing the most personalactivities, such as heart rate, steps counters, walking distance or sleepdisturbance.SmartphoneEvolvementsSmartphonehave rapidly got evolved and maturely developed, they have gone from old stylephones that have a tiny screen with buttons and a chunky sized, to a touchscreen technology and nearly edge to edge display size.Nowsmartphones are rich in features and capabilities, thanks to the tiny sensorsthat are embedded in the phones. Connectivity sensors: like Wi-Fi, GPS, 3G, 4G, LTE andNFCCamera sensors: sensors that can capture high quality images, imagestabilizers, front and back images, even some phones have dual camera now fortaking best images Security sensors: finger print sensors, face and eye detectionsActivity and Health Sensors: Barometer, Geometer, Heart Rate, AccelerometerOther sensors: Proximity sensor, light sensor, GyroscopeThesesensors are useless if they are not backed up by mobile applications.
Mobile applicationsinteract with these sensors and feedback to the user the data or informationthey captured. Then camethe era of Smart-Watches and Activity trackers wearable mHealthApplicationsMobile Appshave the potential for helping people increase their physical activity,nutrition awareness, scheduled alerts and notifications, such as reminders todrink water, break and move.There arecurrently over 100,000 mHealth apps in major mobile apps store like Apple AppStore and Google Play Store (Xu, W.
and Liu, Y., 2015).These appshave helped people to self-monitor and educate themselves towards nutrition,fitness, weight management that had a great effect in reducing obesity, quitsmoking, lose weight and get fit among young people.Challengesthat are facing mHealth AppsAlthoughmHealth apps are growing as people are towards healthy life styles and startedto look after their nutrition diets, fitness activities and working in ahealthy environment. mHealth app development is facing some crucialchallenging’s, that leads people to stop using the apps after a brief period oftime and abandon the application.
Thesechallenges can be categories into these areas:§ Application Design: There is a lack of standardized design process. § Continuity:Mobile applications got abandon and people stop using them, which can besummarized in the following points.1. Some people are not aware of the health application2. Lack of application literacy3. Lack of motivation and discipline § Quality Concerns: 1. Sometimes there is a lack of engagement of qualified professionals whiledeveloping the application.
2. There is an absence of feedback of evidence indicating the clinicaleffectiveness of the application after publishing.3.
Lack of peer review after application publishing. § Security and Privacy: Although most of the mHealth applications are free to download and use,what happens to the data and information being collected and captured whileusing the application? Where are they stored and how are they used? How theapplication generates revenue and who funds the application development?Perhaps these data are used towards targeted marketing, or data arepassed into other third parties for other purposes than the main purpose of theapplication. Somesuggested solutionsDesign Challenges:Mobileapplication developers should have some Human Computer Interaction (HCI)background or studies to enable them design a more user friendly applications. Someorganizations started to apply User-Centered-Design courses such as the courseorganized by IDEO.
org and +Acumen (NovoEd , 2018), to enable developers capture not justfunctional requirements, but also to capture behavior requirements. This coursepasses through several iterations and phases, such as investigation phase, ideationphase, prototyping phase and finally the implementation phase. One of thepositive impacts that can be extracted from this course is that developers ordesigners are in direct communication with the end user to capture detailedusage of the system or what expected to be developed. This process facilitatesdevelopment and testing process, and ensures that developers deliver theexpected solution from end-user perspective. Centralized Database Repository:Looking atthe two major mobile application stores (Apple App Store and Google PlayStore), users have to download the application on their own devices, test themto see if the meet their requirements, or read through each applicationprevious users shared feedback, experience and the given rating for theapplication. This is a very time consuming process and not efficient.
There is nocentralized database mHealth repository, to systematically evaluate the appsregarding their effectiveness and health outcome prices and user reviews. As aconcept Xu and his team was able to develop a database repository to list anddisplay health related applications. As a result Xu was able to providedetailed information for more than 60,000 health related applications fromApple App Store and Google Play Store (Xu, W.
and Liu, Y., 2015). So the concept of centralized databaserepository is feasible and tested for its effectiveness. Gamificationto increase user motivation: Conclusions