The main objective of the paper focuses on abortion and its effects and it is equally an analysis of the developmental problems associated with this act. Another significance of the study regards on various approaches and theories in support or against abortion. The paper also forms an analysis over other probable choices in the subject matter. Lastly, the research takes sides concerning the issue based on the findings.
The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the act of abortion and offer suggestions from the research on ways of availing it as a medical procedure to eliminate the social stigma associated with the act especially for the physicians. “Abortion is a criminal offence but should be a legalized practice pertinent to the law” This paper is an analysis of effects and support for legalizing abortion, as well as its implication to future societal growth. It is an analysis of dominant arguments and theories for the act at certain circumstances in relation to the style of leadership. There are considerable amount of pressure in matters concerning abortion. There have been great changes on matter pertaining abortion, for instance legislatives in Mexico voted for a law that decriminalize abortion, seen as a great support especially for the pro-abortion activists who fought the harsh laws that criminalized the act. The problem associated with legalization of abortion concerns its continual illegal practice and thus the deaths of thousands of women all around the globe.
Dominant arguments in support of abortion
Abortion entails complete expulsion referred to as the spontaneous abortion or it can also be partial termination. The question most people including professional would raise concerns the point where the circumstances are viable. The issue of foetal viability has become a burning legal or scientific debate with varying laws and suggestions among states. The basic or most dominant argument regarding the morality of abortion is whether the act is justifiable if the mother’s life is in danger.
According to Domino (2007), there is a difference between threatened and inevitable abortion but it differs because of the organizational differences regarding the cultural believes and interpretations. According to him “dilatation, rupture of membranes, or expulsion of products in the presence of vaginal bleeding portends inevitable abortion.” Abortion gets a recommendation when there is profuse virginal bleeding during pregnancies regardless of whether the contractions are present or not. This can be due to these ruptured membranes, expelled products of conceptions, or dilated membranes”
Judith Jarvis Thomson argument
In her writing, Thomson argues based on a difference between claims on the rights of a foetus that ethically, it is obligatory for a mother to take all necessary measures to keeping it alive. According to Thomson (2008), “the foetus is an ethically relevant person and with a right to life but the ethical legitimacy of abortion can survive the concession”. Therefore, the theory implicates that abortion is not always ethically permissible.
The issue of abortion has many controversies such as the comparison between the weights of two conflicting human rights where the most essential one prevails. The right to life may pose as the most important human right. Scientific indications are that every individual life is unique in its nature and weigh more over other life contemplations. According to Domino (2007), on “managing spontaneous abortion”, abortion gets the extreme act of violation, which is permanent and devastating to the unborn child. It is an act against infants’ livelihood.
Life is justifiable for all unborn children and it continues through early childhood development to adulthood until death. Would it not be more evil for a mother to deliver a child and abandon it in the world to die? Considering such an argument, then people should choose the lesser of any two evils in a given situation, and the argument would prevail. Morally the conclusion to the argument may be that abortion is a selfish act. Does thus mean that people should quantify caring of the unborn child through out the gestation period regardless of whether the challenges or risks involve less evil compared to other future involvement with the child? The argument negates the existence of possible vices concerning the childbearing procedures. Philosophically, does one’s control over her body overshadow the fundamental right to life? The argument over this would be a non-existent right to such kind of control.
Considering that such a situation exists, the pregnant woman’s rights would outweigh the baby’s rights to life meaning there would be more important life than another would. Contrary, unlike pro-abortion activists, the believers have strengthened their opposition against abortion. There criticism has heightened in the various sectors of the society making the health divisions incapable of taking a stand over the issue considering that the legalization highly affects the profession. In 2009, thirteen states amended their constitution, which so legislation of more critical measures concerning abortion.
With this kind of resistance from the highest political spheres, the matter continues to be of great controversy always linked to the religion. Another least expected argument especially with legalization of abortion would be the issue of unwanted children. The issue of quality life may be absurd in this context since hard work is what is supposedly meant to redeem poor quality and life has value regardless of quality. Most people would argument this to be a selfish act since it denies the child its right to live, so that the life of those in existence can improve. Logically, doest this imply that we can eliminate those lacking quality life so that those who enjoy some quality can have an improvement? Is aborting a private act? It is reasonable to state that a child belongs to the society and terminating its life is a loss to the society. Termination of its life in the name of “a private act” would haunt not only the victim but the society as well since the cultural believes and acts shows that we ought to allow moral value to any human being or we face suffering from humanity or values. Lastly, is Sprengel (1999) post the argument in the Fundamental Issues of Abortion, He indicated the probability of delivering unwanted children who are prone to engaging in crime. Would it be sensible to support abortion on this argument? Justice states that one is innocent until proven otherwise.
Reasonably, the argument would be unjust. The unwanted children who are in existence have a chance to reform. Allowing abortion over such a possibility would presume that the death penalty get uses that are of much less criminal charges than murder. This act would indicate lack of love or concern for humanity. In line with Sprengel (1999), it is a scientific fact that a child is a unique human being with a right to life.
This is more important and fundamental fact over other rights including that of abortion if there exists any, which portrays the act as permissible. According to him, “the strength of pro-life is not because of cleaver artificial definitions that make things convenient but one that acknowledges unique individual life.”
Susan Sherwin argument
On analysis to offer the available perspectives into allowing but controlling the performance lawfully as the first part of the essay emphasizes, according to Sherwin, (1992) the discussion of abortion overlooks, “the distinctive analysis of feminists’ ethics”.
She indicates that most authors will presume acquaintance with common arguments to overshadow women’s right to choosing abortion. The feminists’ ethics arguments have a focus upon broader frameworks as opposed to moral and general consideration of legal tolerability. There is ignorance over the overall struggle especially within the sexists’ societies over control of women productivity. Women are supposed to respond to their inner feelings and relationships with others.
In line with Sherwin’s writing (1992), there is a lot of tension on the issue of abortion. “No matter how appalling and dangerous the conditions are, women form widely diverse cultures and historical periods have pursued abortions.” She expresses her concern that if abortion is not legalized, made safe and accessible to society, then women will continue to seek illegal and life-threatening acts of foetal-life terminations behind the law. According to him, activists who are against abortion dismiss her point of view because they are willing to meet the cost of avoiding reality.
Loss of women’s lives as they pursue illegal abortions behind the doors is due to the restrictive policies. (Sherwin, 1992)
Peter Singer argument
According to his writing, Singer (1993) argumentatively states that the foetus has no expressible feeling, preferences and subsequently no conscious suffering. This is an indication that people have different preferences regarding the survival of unborn foetus therefore foetal survival is not a barricade over abortion on condition that the practice is painless. Singer argument proceeds to show that people support the act of abortion on the stand that the mother’s rights overrule those of the foetus. The literature portrayed by Singer indicates that the unborn child does not understand life and its preferences and therefore if someone has preferences over its existence, preferably within the first month of the development period, then termination would be justifiable. (1993) According to various moral controversies concerning the issue of abortion investigated in this paper, a conclusion view indicates that the act ought to be permissible over special scenarios, which should correlate to the laws of the country or state.
There ought to be clarity and certainty that pertains the law over such critical matters. (Victoria Law Reform Commission, 2002) Most ruling would lack clarity over lawful abortion and the extent on prohibition of the same. The law must provide a straightforward legal setting for physicians to conduct their operations. This would include analysis of the woman’s circumstances. All actions ought to be supportive to the best interest of the patient. Women suffer from distress and humiliation on the hands of physicians because of the stigma associated with the act especially when it lacks proper elaboration and thus the deaths associated with abortions.
(2007). The 5-minutes clinical consult Abortion, Spontaneous. 16th Ed Washington DC.
Lippincott Williams and Wilkins publishers Singer, P. (1993) Taking Life: The Embryo and the Fetus’ in Practical Ethics (2nd Ed) Sprengel, M. K. (1999, October 27). Fundamental Issues of Abortion. Heritage House’76 inc. Retrieved February 1, 2010 from http://www.
abortionfacts.com Sherwin, S. (1992). No Longer Patient: Feminist Ethics and Health Care, Philadelphia: Temple University Press Thomson, J. J.
(2008) Abortion. Boston Review, Retrieved February 1, 2010 fromhttp://bostonreview.net/BR20.
3/thomson.html> at 15 February 2008. Victoria Law Reform Commission. (2002) Laws of Abortion. Melbourne Victoria (Second Ed) Retrieved February 1, 2010 from www.lawreform.vic.gov.au