Abimbola OtunBEngChemical Engineering000993463    Section 1 An Electric Vehicle as described by theOxford dictionary is simply a motor car powered by an electric motor ratherthan an internal-combustion engine (Oxford Dictionaries, 2018).  There are three types of electric cars,namely Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles(PHEVs) and the Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) (Ergon Energy, 2018). The HEVs use both petrol and electricity topower, the electric motor starts off the powering, as the speed rises or loadrises the petrol engine takes over (Ergon Energy, 2018).Figure 1: Hybrid Electric Vehicle The PHEVs is quite similar to that of theHEVs, it is also powered by both petrol and electricity, they can recharge thebattery through both regenerative braking and using external electricalcharging outlet as the battery gets low, the petrol engine recharges it (ErgonEnergy, 2018). Figure 2: Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle While the BEVs, on the other hand, aredifferent from the other two in the sense that they are fully electric poweredvehicles, they do not have a petrol engine (Ergon Energy, 2018). An externalcharging outlet is needed in other to power up the battery (Ergon       Energy, 2018).

Just like the PHEVs, theycan recharge their batteries through regenerative braking (Ergon Energy, 2018). Figure 3:Battery Electric VehicleThere are quite obvious differences betweenthe three kinds of electric cars, one is solely powered by electricity, whilethe other two are powered by both petrol and electricity (Ergon Energy, 2018).Figure 4: Differences between types of electric carsJust like every other car the electric carsalso has its advantages and disadvantages. The Electric Vehicles are mostlycharged by the electricity, which implies little or no gas (petrol) is needed(Conserve Engine Future, 2018). The Electric Vehicles are 100% eco-friendly,this is because they have electrically powered engines, therefore they do notemit any poisonous gas into the environment (Conserve Engine Future, 2018).They are equally as safe to drive as the fully fuel powered vehicles, theyundergo the series of tests as fuel powered cars (Conserve Engine Future, 2018).The thought of electric cars being so expensive should be abolished by now, thisis because, with more technological involvements, the costs have gone downunlike earlier when they first came out (Conserve Engine Future, 2018). Themass production of batteries and available tax incentives have further broughtthe costs down, therefore they are more cost-effective (Conserve Engine Future,2018).

Due to their engines being electrically powered there is, therefore, noneed to lubricate the engines, you also don’t need to send for service asfrequent as the fuel powered vehicles would require (Conserve Engine Future,2018). The Electric Vehicles also curb noise pollution due to them being muchquieter compared to the fuel powered vehicles (Conserve Engine Future, 2018). Buton the disadvantage side, the electric engines have a limited mileage range(Blue, 2010). A completely charged battery takes up to eight hours (Blue,2010). The vehicles are heavy due to the batteries which weigh about 1000pounds, this isn’t good because the heavier the battery is the faster it tendsto drain (Anon, 2017). The Electric Cars require charging stations, for longdistance journeys there needs to be a place for charging located almost atevery point and also to recharge takes quite a time, it takes about 3 hours torecharge (Anon, 2017).

Section 2The research gotten for the material is froma secondary source because the information gotten was a piece of work done bysomeone else. The research done on the electric vehicles can be termed as beingquantitative because most of the piece of information gotten can actually bemeasured. The topic given was analyzed firstly thoroughly to understand exactlywhat was required. Section 3Chart 1: The Fluctuation in Crude oil(2012-2017) (McMahon, 2017).

    As seen from the chart above there is a recent decline in the priceof crude oil and also a fluctuation over the years (McMahon, 2017). The crudeoil price is to an extent determined by actual supply, demand and alsoexpectation (Economist, 2014). The demand is getting low just because of theweak economic activities and a growing switch away from oil to other fuels(Economist, 2014). The US Dollar has also been one of the main factors for theprice drop of crude oil (Trever, 2015). There is always a great pressure on themarket when the dollar gets strong because the value of commodities tends tofall (Trever, 2015). The Organization of the Petroleum ExportingCountries(OPEC), a big chain of the oil producers’ unwilling attitude tostabilize the oil market is also a major factor in the sharp decline of crudeoil price (Trever, 2015).

A country like the UK which is not an oil producingcountry, the decline in oil is coming as a blessing in disguise to thecitizens, this is because the price of fuel would definitely drop as the priceof oil keeps dropping (Bowden, 2016). The pump price had already fallen from131p a liter when the oil started declining in the summer of 2014 to just below£1 at some supermarket forecourts (Bowden, 2016).  With the huge tax on fuel, analysts areforecasting a liter to go for as little as 86p if oil declines to as low as $10(Bowden, 2016). The eco-friendliness of the Electric vehicles shifts every fiveminutes, and at this rate, as more zero-emission technologies are added to itsgrid we might as well attain the supposed 100% eco-friendliness soon (Gizmodo,2015). A research was taken out on the first Electric Vehicle in this modernera in 2013 (Cobb, 2014).

The study observed that over 2000 of the modern eraElectric Vehicles have been driven at about over 35 million miles (Cobb, 2014).Some other researches have been carried out on the Electric Vehicles, but mostof the cars were either one or two years old, they all had covered around50,000-100,000 miles (Cobb, 2014). Manufactures even go as far as granting awarranty on the batteries to the costumes for quite a long time, for example,the Tesla warranties the 60-kwh Model S to 125,000 miles (Cobb, 2014). Most manufacturersusually warranty the batteries for eight years and the mileage is at least100,000 (Cobb, 2014). The cost of replacing a battery in an Electric Vehicleboils down to the make of the car, the year of manufacture of car and also themodel of the car (Baxter, 2016). The replacement of batteries in the modern eraof electric vehicles is quite rare, the battery is now one of the most reliableparts of the electric vehicle (Baxter, 2016). To replace a battery for theelectric vehicles, you would need to have between $1000-$2000 (Baxter, 2016).The Battery used by most electric vehicles produce between 100 to 300 volts ofelectricity, this voltage is therefore too high (Neiger, 2014).

To contain thevoltage, the battery of the electric vehicle is then placed in an insulatedmetal box placed behind the rear passenger seats (Neiger, 2014). The cablesused are also insulated with heavy-duty orange plastic casings (Neiger, 2014). Theprice of charging your electric vehicles differs between charging at your workplace,at your home, at a public station or even a rapid charging station (Anon,2016). Charging at home is the most economical, it costs you about £3.

64 for thebattery to fully charge (Anon, 2016). An average overnight electricity runs ata rate of 13p per kwh (Anon, 2016). If you are charging at work, it dependssolely on the employer, because some employers tend to install charging pointsand offer free access to the points throughout the day (Anon, 2016). Publicstations like car parks or restaurants are often free, depending on your timeof stay in premises (Anon, 2016). The rapid charging stations like motorwayservice stations are the most expensive running at about £6.50 per 30 minscharge (Anon, 2016).

Figure 5: Acar getting charged at a charging station  Section 4Theelectric vehicles are definitely a part of the future of transportation. Due tothe alarming rate at which countries are diverting away from the fully powered enginesto the hybrid vehicles (Hockenos, 2017). From the running cost, the maintenancecost, the booming supports from different countries and the greaterenvironmental advantages (Conserve Energy Future, 2018), the Electric vehicleshave a greater chance of being the future of personal transport. Despite newefforts to make the electric vehicles 100% eco-friendly, researches need to bemade on how to dispose of the batteries after they wear out.REFERENCES1    Baxter, E. (2016). How much does it cost toreplace a hybrid battery?. online HowStuffWorks.

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