Abigail Garcia HerreraU.S. HistoryMr. LeggJan 24´2018Open Door policy a) During 1899 various countries (France, Germany, Britain, Japan, and Russia) were doing business in China.(1) Many of the American investors and businessmen that were currently doing business there, got worried that they could be thrown out by problems that could occur with the other countries. The then current U.S. secretary of state John Milton Hay under the influence of Alfred E.
Hippisley and William W. Rockhill (4) drafted what it is now known as the ¨Open Door Notes¨. (2) These notes said that the great powers had the same opportunities to trade with China and only China had the power to collect taxes not only that but if they did charge taxes or any other fees it had to be equal to every country.(3) In general what these notes stated was that these countries could have business there without having control or power over the country but China in retribution couldn’t have special treatment to any country.
Jon hay? main purpose is not to help China is to help the United States he does help China in the process but still, his main purpose wasn’t that. The open door policy worked for a small period of time because in the year 1900 there was a rebellion known as the ¨ Boxer rebellion¨ this uprising started because people from China did not like that even though no other country was in control over them entirely there were areas that were under foreign control.(5) These people were anti-Christianity and anti-Foreign, they started to kill hundreds of foreigners, missionaries, and Chinese who converted to Christianism. The united states and other big powers helped china against the boxer rebellion and won in August of 1900. After this event, John Hay issued a second open door notes making The United States the guardian of the trade concerning China. This policy made The U.S the most important for China.(1) When the communist won in 1949 the open door policy was ended which made the open door policy a failure but after some time of success.
(2)b) When the open door notes where written the United States was very pleased since without them they couldn’t have gotten a trade with China as easily because they had no sphere of interest with them.(5) When John Hay wrote the note he sent identical copies to the powers (France, Germany, Britain, Japan, Italy and Russia) so that they would accept them but these countries didn’t really say yes or say no, most ignored it but Hay took it as a yes. Only Russia and Japan when happy with the terms.
(6) Even though most ignored the first open door notes they didn’t the second time in 1900 when the U.S. with the help of other countries help end the Boxer rebellion.
(5)c) When the first open door policy notes were in action a big group of Chinese weren’t happy with how parts of major cities were run by foreigners, so they started to make secret groups called righteous and harmonious fists better known as the Boxers since many of the members practiced martial arts. The boxers did rituals that they said made them invulnerable, (7) they also had a magical shield that what supposed to protect them from the devil(that’s what they called the people that were taking over)(8). The man hated how these foreigners were taking over and how missionaries were coming and converting their people to Christianity so they started to kill them hundreds of them. The first open door policy didn’t have anything to do with the Boxers but the second one did because right after fighting against them there was another open door note series made.(5)d) One of the things that hurt the open door policy was the twenty-one demands the Japanese asked from China, a clear violation of the open door policy, these demands asked for special treatment towards them over the rest of the countries.(9) But after this there where the Washington naval conferences between 1921-1922 in which nine countries ( United States, Britain, Japan, France, Italy, Belgium, The Netherlands, Portugal, and China) signed an Open Door Policy where Japan’s control over Manchuria is mentioned but for the rest of the countries there is equal opportunity and China has no right to discriminate.(10) What ended the open door policy was that in 1949 the communist won over China and under the new regimen the door was closed there were little trade and diplomatic contact for about twenty years until the 70?.(11)e) In 1978 China was having some economic struggle so they opened their door to trade with the U.
S. this time for the benefit of China since even though China had benefited the open door policy of 1900 it was mainly made so that the U.S. could make money.
(12) The trade was available in certain parts of China but it did help to boost up their economy. China had zones for investment such as the special economic zones, open coastal cities, the economic and technological development zones, and some others. This Open door policy that took action made China a world power since many countries started to search for commerce there.(13)