Asuccessful organization is one with the capability to manage all of theirassets to achieve the company’s key objectives and desired performancemeasures, which in turn yield profitability. TheAsset Management System adopted by a company shows its willingness to commit togood practice, and demonstrate their sound stewardship of managing their assetsto support the organization’s functions by ensuring that the support issustainable financially.
Thepurpose of the Asset Management System is to make key decisions pertaining toan asset lifecycle that range from its acquisition to its disposal. The processinvolves careful planning by senior management from the organization, and thisplan has to be aligned throughout the different levels of function in theorganization. Withthe guidance from Asset Management System, a list of Asset Management Policyand Plans are developed. These plans allow the organization to:Documentand plan maintenance and work practices and proceduresDevelopa long-term master plan that details the budget, funding and renewal plansrequiredDevelopa sustainable financial and lifecycle planDevelopa risk management plan and identify possible risks and its mitigationMeetlegislative requirementsTheAsset Management Plan included in this report looks at the maintenance of theTrain Traction Motor. A detailed coverage on the asset is covered in the AssetManagement Plan which entails the following:AssetKey ParametersLifecycleStrategiesBudgetPlanningRiskMitigationsTheinterdependencies and funding prioritisation is also covered on how should bebest managed for the Train Traction Motor. A detailed andcomprehensive asset management structure will benefit the organization in theforeseeable future and yields long term benefits as well.TheISO 55000 series of standard establishes a guide for the management of assets. Froman asset management perspective, policies and strategies are overarchingelements required to be determine by an organization in order to achieve aneffective asset management system (Poland, 2015).
The right implementation approachadopted in an organization will yield tangible performance benefits across thelifecycle of all assets. 1.1 ScopeInthis report, an analysis will be done for the chosen component – A TrainTraction Motor, whereby an in-depth coverage of the asset management framework,sustainability, systems interdependencies and life-cycle thinking will becovered.1.2 MethodologyThemethodology adopted in this analysis requires in-depth understanding on theestablished ISO 55000 series of Asset Management Framework, withcross-referencing to multiple sources pertaining to the methodologies currentlypractised by industries. 1.3 Assignment StructureInthis assignment, the analysis will be done in a systematic format based on thestructure of the assignment. Theassignment will list according to the ISO 55000 Asset Management Framework,followed by discussing about the lifecycle and sustainability considerations ofthe assets, system interdependencies, and lastly, about using risk-basedprioritization for the funding of maintenance activities.
2 ISO 55000 – Asset ManagementFrameworkAssets,such as Train Traction Motor, have to be maintained professionally by anorganization in order to maximise the performance benefits and to meet itsintended target and or objectives upon procurement of the asset. Allassets, including Train Traction Motor, have a lifecycle. In this section, adetailed explanatory of the life-cycle approach will be elaborated to explainhow the asset fit into an Asset Management Framework. The process of optimizing the value of anasset and making the appropriate decision throughout the life of the asset isdone with the guidance of asset management.Accordingto ISO 55000, Asset Management is the coordinated activity of an organizationto realize value from assets (International Standard, 2014).Asset management enables the realization of value by balancing financial costs,managing the risk associated to the asset, and lastly, balance the quality ofperformance from the asset. Figure 1 – Asset ManagementFramework (Hung, 2017)Themethod of implementing asset management system can be done with reference toFigure 1 – Asset Management Framework. The framework comprises of the fundamentalparts of asset management in ‘Asset Management Policy’, ‘Asset ManagementStrategy’, ‘Asset Management Objectives’ and ‘Asset Management Plan’.
Theseprocesses are done in a systematic flow, one after another, so that the plansand objectives are ultimately aligned to the initial policy that is set out. Anotherkey process includes the understanding of the asset lifecycle as well. Throughthe application of these processes, it maximises the value-for-money andsatisfaction of expectation from stakeholders.
2.1 AssetManagement PolicyTheasset management policy is a statement set out by the senior management of theorganization whom intend to apply asset management to achieve theorganizational objectives. The policy will outline and define the framework forsetting the asset management strategies and objectives.2.2 StrategicAsset Management Plan (SAMP)Thestrategic asset management plan provides the linkage between the organisationalobjectives and the asset management objective. The SAMP should be establishedaccording to the relevant functional levels, and are often done in the form ofperformance targets set out for asset management activities, and the conditionof assets (Poland, 2015). 2.
3 AssetManagement Plan (AMP)Theasset management plan details the approach that relates closely to the assets. Theintended objective of the plan is to bridge the current state or performance ofthe assets to the required or desired future state of the asset. It containsthe asset management activities, plans for the operational and maintenance ofthe asset, asset condition assessment, the renewal plans and resource planning.Theplanning stage involved during the establishment of the AMP is crucial, as itinvolves the evaluation of the asset and their potential to meet servicedelivery requirement – which is usually specified in the asset managementobjectives (Keqa, 2016). Adetailed explanation on the AMP of the chosen component – Train Traction Motor,will be elaborated. The content of the AMP for the asset class of TractionMotor should contain the following pointers:2.
3.1 Asset Key ParametersInthis section of the AMP, the description, usage, number of assets and itscriticality should be documented.2.3.2 Currentand Desired PerformanceThisportion of the AMP will include the performance measures and the keyperformance indicators of the traction motor.2.3.
3 Lifecycle StrategiesThisportion of the AMP includes plans through all phases of the asset lifecycle. Toolsthat can be used in this stage includes the Lifecycle Cost Analysis.2.3.4 BudgetInthis section of the AMP, it shall elaborate on the sources of funding, a budgetthat has been allocated for the scope of AMP required and its futurerequirements.2.
3.5 Risks MitigationForthe successful management of asset, an AMP should also identify and assessedthe risks involved, with the corresponding actions to mitigate the risksinvolved. Inparticular to the Train Traction Motor, one of the foreseeable risks would be thefailure of the traction motor. Therefore, it is important to highlight thecontingency and redundancy plans in the AMP, to address such issues.
Themitigation of such risks, for consideration to be added into the AMP, arelisted below:a) Toimprove the competency of staffb) Toprocure spare traction motors Throughthe use of AMP, an organization is able to plan in accordance with the SAMP, toweigh the type of maintenance activities required for the Traction Motor. Insuch instance, the organization should decide to adopt either reactivemaintenance or predictive maintenance regime. The use of predictive maintenancecan be incorporated through remote condition monitoring of the performance ofthe bearings within the Traction Motor. Tractionmotors are used to drive the wheelset of Electrical Multiple Unit (EMU).
A keypart of the motors are the bearings within. Failure in the bearings will affectthe operational reliability of the train, and may even result in severe damageto other components. Apartfrom the type of maintenance activities, frequency of scheduled maintenance shouldalso be documented and planned forth, based on the number of resourcesavailable to attend to these scheduled maintenance.
Adecision should also be made on whether the asset require an overhaul uponreaching a certain lifespan deliberated by the Original Equipment Manufacturer(OEM) or by the organization. 2.4 Implementationof Asset Management PlanUpon the careful planning and considerationinvolved in the planning of the AMP, the implementation of the plan will followsuit easily. The implementation of the AMP usually differ in terms of asset, aseach asset require different approaches, however, it will comply with theoverarching asset management policy. Inthe implementation phase, a criteria should be established for the requiredprocesses. The delivery plans upon acquisition to the documentation of QualityProcedures (QP) and Work Instruction (WI) should be planned accordingly.
Throughthese documentation, the implementation for specific assets are tailored accordingly.Inparticular to Train Traction Motor, the QP and WI should detail the task listof maintenance activities, competency of staff, service reliability required ofthe asset. On top of these, it should also specify the need for performance datameasures and trending which should encompass the following area in theperformance of the asset:a) SafetyPerformance of Traction Motorb) FailureAnalysisc) Availabilityof Traction Motord) MeanTime Between Failure of Traction Motore) BudgetPlanningTheimplementation should also take into consideration those factors for futureimprovement. These factors include addressing:a) Non-conformitiesto what is specified in the QP and WIb) ContinualImprovement through periodic review ofasset management plansc) Preventiveactions or measures such as incorporating the use of condition monitoring 3 Sustainability and Life CycleConsiderationsTheframework for both asset management and sustainability are robust in its ownways by addressing multiple objectives in each of their framework. Theprimary objective of asset management is to extend the life of an asset withminimal lifecycle cost, while that of sustainability is to minimize the use ofnatural resources, while allowing activities to continue as per usual. Theintegration of both sustainability and asset management will provide an evenrobust framework, as reflected in Figure 2 below. Figure 2 – Integration ofSustainability and Asset Management 3.
1 LifecycleConsiderationsAllassets have a lifecycle. There are multiple stages involved, however,organizations tend to keep it simple and identify these four key stages ofasset lifecycle: 1) Planning2) Acquisition3) Operation and Maintenance4) DisposalIn short, the phrase “from the cradle to the grave”sum up the entire lifecycle of an asset. In the context of a traction motor, itis also similar to all other assets by having to go through the same lifecycleprocess. However, in this section, two key stages will be further discussed onits importance compared to the rest in the lifecycle process. 3.1.1 PlanningThe planning phase is the first of the four stagesin the lifecycle process, and in my opinion, is the most important of all.
Allthe requirements has to be established in this stage, and these requirementscan be done with reference to the evaluation of existing traction motor. Asuccessful planning will ensure:a) Resources are available when requiredb) Sufficiency of asset to meet the availability targetc) The funding of the acquisition of the traction motord) The cost of the lifecycle (Whole Lifecycle Cost) is catered sufficiently Figure 3 – Life Cycle Costing (The University of Vermont, 2015)The acquisition cost as shown in Figure 3, usuallyrepresents a tiny proportion of the total cost for owning the asset. A hugechunk of the cost is not visible upon acquisition. Therefore, during theplanning stage, it is indeed crucial that these costs be anticipated or predictedprior to its acquisition and planned for accordingly.
The lack of suchanticipation during the preliminary planning phase will eventually result in ahigher expenditure spending, which may bust the budget that was originallyplanned for.The anticipation of such costs will also determinethe subsequent maintenance and operations support and activities. 3.1.
2 Operation and MaintenanceThis stage indicates the application and managementof the traction motor asset, with the aim of delivering its intended outcome accordingto the specified performance measures. In contrast to the planning phase, theoperations and maintenance phase can be considered as the ‘execution’ phase ofthe lifecycle process of the asset. In my opinion, the traction motor shall deliver if operationsand maintenance approaches are clearly defined, with steps taken in asystematic way to ensure that maintenance are carried out as per listed duringthe planning phase. The ineffective maintenance delivery of an assetshall contribute to its premature failure. It is worth noting that thesefailures maybe resulted from unknown failure modes.
The failure of the tractionmotor asset does have a consequence tagged to it in the form of affecting:1) The traction motor’s whole lifecycle costing2) The traction motor’s performance3) Safety of the rolling stock and its commutersA way to better manage and ensure that maintenanceof the traction motor is optimised, tools and techniques are available toensure that the life of the asset can be sustained and, if possible, extendedbeyond its intended lifespan. The tools and techniques are discussed in Figure 4and Figure 5. In my opinion, two of the most important tools thatshould be used in conjunction with the maintenance are, ‘Fault Tree Analysis’,and ‘Failure Mode, Effects and Critical Analysis’ (FMECA). With reference toFigure 4, it can be seen that these two tools relate closely to the analysis offailure of the traction motor.
With the use of both ‘Fault Tree Analysis’ andFMECA, the failure modes of the train traction motor is looked at. Thesefailures include the P-F failures, usage-related failures, hidden failure modesand failures that may not be related by maintenance. Furthermore, it providesan in-depth analysis into the critical component within the traction motor.
Through the use of these tools, maintenancestrategies can be better established and in turn, it may sustain the asset oreven extend the life of the asset. Figure 4 – Maintenance Tools andTechniques (AMCL, 2017) Figure 5 – Listing of MaintenanceTools and Techniques (AMCL, 2017)3.2 SustainabilityConsiderationsOver the past decades,the landscape for mobility has been ever changing and increasing to cope withthe demands of commuters around the world. As a result of which, transportationhas become one of the leading sources of contribution to greenhouse gases.There is a need to shift transportation and urban development to a moresustainable path that will lower environmental costs and reduce reliance onnatural resources (Asian Development Bank, 2017).Urban railway contributeto sustainable development in the form of ‘Environmental’, ‘Social’ and ‘Economic’factors.
In my opinion, the two most important factors of sustainability are ‘Environmental’and ‘Social’ factors.The ‘Environmental’factors involve the interaction of the railway with the natural environment.This is one of the most direct interaction, and any considerations made has animpact on the overall environment.
The ‘Social’ factor involves the communityand society in totality. A sustained community support do have an impact on thesustainability of the overall railway landscape. Figure 6 – Factors influencingsustainability (NetworkRail, 2013)According to a report byInternational Transport Forum, global transportation accounts for fifty percentof the overall fuel consumption.
Within the entire transportation landscape,railways accounts for two percent of carbon emission. (International Transport Forum, 2010). Based on the report, itis worth noting that transportation has a huge impact on environmental factors,and considerations should be made to ensure that transportation is sustainable.Sustainable development is substantially more than “doing less harm” (NetworkRail, 2013). In terms ofrailway, considerations in terms of environmental and social factors can bemade through:a) Reducingthe overall carbon emission of railsb) Beenergy efficient across rail infrastructures and operationsc) Improveaccessibility of stations and rail networkd) Procuringsustainable materialsThe correspondingactions to such considerations can be done so by implementing:a) EnergyRecovery Mechanism for Traction Motor – One of such ways is the use ofregenerative braking technology to convert mechanical energy into electricalenergy for the train traction motor. b) EnergySaving Technology – Energy will be conserved when not required across thenetwork of infrastructures in urban railwayc) Integrationof land use with rail transit to reduce carbon emissions from roadsd) Properdisposal of assets upon end-of-life – Materials from the assets should berecycled or disposed of properly4 Systems InterdependenciesAmong the subsystems ofrailway infrastructure, there are numerous interdependencies between thesesystems in order for the whole railway system to function efficiently andproperly. Based on the subsystemof a train traction motor, the interdependency relationship is shown below: Figure 7 – Interdependencyrelationship of SubsystemsBased on figure 7, itcan be seen that these subsystems are interdependent:a) Thetrain traction motor require power supply to functionb) Thestaff working in the power plant require transportation to get to workc) Powerplant require raw materials, such as oil and gas, as fuel supply to generateelectricityd) Staffworking in the fuel supply plant require transportation to get to worke) ThePower Plant and Fuel Supply is dependent on the Fire Station during anemergencyf) Duringan emergency, the staff working for these systems are dependent on the hospitalWith reference to figure7, it indeed shows that all the systems are in one way or another dependent oneach other.
These interdependencies will then benefit the efficient functioningof each subsystem holistically.5 Funding PrioritisationAll physical assets deteriorateover time or usage, with their own characteristic pattern of deterioration. Mostgood practice techniques uses risk or reliability studies to optimize the assetinterventions and prioritize their funding for maintenance. One important toolthat can be used with regards to risk-based prioritization is “Bow-TieAnalysis”. “Bow-Tie Analysis” reduce the occurrence of undesirable eventsthrough engineering means, with identified control as mitigations.
Figure 8 – Bow Tie Analysis (AMCL, 2017)The”Fault Tree Analysis” tool can be used to complement the bow-tie analysis, asthe tool involves tracing and analysing all branches of causal factors thatcould contribute to the accident or undesired event. Figure 9 – Fault Tree Analysis ofTrain Traction Motor InFigure 9, the probability of occurrence that leads to the Train Traction Motorto catch fire is calculated. The probability is calculated based on the numberof occurrences, over a period of years.
Throughthe “Fault Tree Analysis” diagram, it can be seen that ‘Mechanical Failure’contributes to 80% of the probability of occurrences, with ‘Bearing notreplaced periodically’ contributing to 50% of its probability of occurrence.A worked example in theformat of a “Bow-Tie Analysis” has been illustrated based on the hazardousevent of “Train Traction Motor on Fire” below: Figure 10 – Bow Tie AnalysisIllustration of a Train Traction Motor Through the analysisusing the tools of “Fault Tree Analysis” and “Bow Tie Analysis”, it can beconcurred that funding for maintenance should be done through risk-basedprioritization. From the “Fault TreeAnalysis” in Figure 9, it can be seen that the funding should also correspondto the highest probability causal factor in the diagram – which is the’Changing out of motor bearings periodically’. By applying suchtechniques, it will definitely help in the management of assets moreeffectively with all these risks being addressed. 6 ConclusionsAsset management is along term approach that requires constant review to ensure that the value of anasset can be realized. This approach has to be conducted in a systematic andintegrated manner which encompasses a whole lot of planning, checking andexecution in a top down approach in any organization. The need to understandand manage the risks and costs that are associated to each and every individualasset is crucial, as assets are one of the key capabilities to define if anorganization is successful.
A holistic asset management structure involves morethan just the asset and the organization, it requires staff to be competent aswell as having sufficient resources allocated to facilitate the assetmanagement system. Every organization hasits own discipline, however, the approach to the management of assets remainthe same. It helps organization to increase their visibility on the assetslifecycle, with forward planning on the asset with regards to its performancemeasures and whole lifecycle considerations.Organizations just haveto follow the same methodology and approach, and will eventually achieve itskey objectives. A successful asset management structure yields long termbenefits, and help to put an organizations investment into perspective. Gaining ISO 55000certifications will also boost the reputation of any organization and increaseits recognition. The act of good asset management shows the organization’swillingness to commit to good practice, which in turn, help to attractinvestors.