A global traveler of the 15th century might have predicted that Islam, Buddhism, and Christianity would have continued to spread.

Technological innovation could have been another made prediction. In addition, agriculture advancement in the agricultural societies could have been just another prediction out of the so many possibilities. In what ways did the gathering and hunting people of Australia differ from those of the northwest coast of North America? (pg. 501; Comparison)The North American paleolithic peoples had a much more structured and more modern community. They had permanent villages, ranked society, slaves, and stored their food. In the other hand, the Australian’s were a little more traditional with their gathering and hunting.

They made no agricultural changes, but did take in some material things from other cultures like canoes, fish hooks, and etcetera.  Australians also used “firestick farming” and the North Americans did not. Firestick farming is the process of purposefully setting fires in certain areas to make hunting easier and help plants and animal populations to grow.

 North Americans had a much more bounteous amount of resources. Three hundred or more edible animals to hunt and lots of salmon and other fish.What kinds of changes were transforming the societies of the West African Igbo and the North American Iroquois as the fifteenth century unfolded? (pg. 502; Change)Iroquois proved their political advances by creating an alliance with the Mohawk, Oneida, Cayuga, Seneca, and Onondaga societies. They called it the Great Law Peace and through it the many disputes were settled through a council of clan leaders. This greatly suppressed the previously constant fighting and conflict.

The Igbo had the possibility to go along with the trend of developing states and urban centers and they could have succeeded greatly in this evolution, but they instead chose to leave new political ideas and create social cohesion prestigious ranks, women’s associations, and artistic traditions. The Igbo changed from having a matrilineal to patrilineal society. And traded actively exporting goods such as cotton cloth, fish, copper, and iron goods.

The Iroquois continued to have a matrilineal society where both men and women had roles of equal value in the culture.What role did Central Asian and West African pastoralists play in their respective regions? (pg. 504; Significance)The Central Asian pastoralists had negative impacts in their area. They were an army of Nomads and under Timur they brought massive devastation to Russia, Persia, and India. They had no lasting empire after Timur’s death.  Central Asian pastoralists developed the Persia and Afghanistan state to be absolutely beautiful.

The capital, Samarkand, was magnificent and home to many artists, poets, traders, and craftsmen. The work of Timur marked the last great military success of the Central Asian nomads as they were later absorbed by Russia and China. The Fulbe, after migrating East, began to live in small communities among agricultural peoples They made these societies tense since the Fulbe absolutely hated them and their lives. The Fulbe pastoralists began to adopt Islam, some ended up settling in towns becoming highly regarded religious leaders.

They were also behind a great wave of jihads, leading to a massive expansion of Islam.How would you define the major achievements of Ming dynasty China? (pg. 506; Description)The Ming Dynasty focused on recovering China by turning back to their roots and traditions after the disruption of mongol rule. The capital was moved to Beijing and a massive imperial home called “the Forbidden City” was constructed.

 They repaired Mongol damage on land by restoring millions of acres to cultivation, rebuilding canals, reservoirs, and irrigation. And planting a billion trees to try and reforest China. In addition, they launched on of the most massive and impressive maritime expeditions ever seen. What political and cultural differences stand out in the histories of fifteenth century China and Western Europe? What similarities are apparent? (pg. 510; Comparison)Both Europe and China set out on maritime expeditions, even though both were quite different. They both worked on demographic recovery, political consolidation, and overseas expansion.

Europe also tried to regrow their population after being devastated by the plague. They also tried to regain old political patterns, but China had a centralized government and an entirely unified area. Whereas Europe had lots of separate and stand alone states.  China looked back and brought back old traditions. Europeans took it a step further with the Renaissance. They looked at old literature from Greece and Rome and worked to develop them more in the future and even surpass them. In what ways did European maritime voyaging in the fifteenth century differ from that of China? What accounts for these differences? (pg.

513; Comparison)First, they differed greatly in size. Columbus had three ships and crew of 90, Gama had four ships 170 crew, whereas in China Zheng He had hundreds of ships and thousands of crew members. They also differed in purpose.

China saw the purpose of the expeditions more of an exploratory trip. They also differed in result. China had a sharp end to the trips, supposedly because of death of Emperor Yongle meaning no more support to the voyages. What differences can you identify among the four major empires in the Islamic world of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries? (pg. 516; Comparison)Each of the four major empires emerged at different times. The Ottoman in the 14th century, the Safavid in late 15th C, the Songhay in 15th C, and the Mughal in early 16th C. The Songhay and Mughal both governed populations that had more non-Muslims then Muslims.

The Ottoman and Safavid were generally a little more Muslim. The Ottoman and Mughal allowed Christians and Hindus to respectively practice their religion, but the Safavid imposed the Shia version of Islam as the official religion. A Songhay monarch “Sonni Ali” did all proper Islam practices, but also encouraged a reputation of being a magician, whereas the other had nothing like this.In what ways did the civilizations of China, Europe, and the Islamic world in the fifteenth century seem to be moving in the same direction, and in what respects were they diverging from one another? (pg. 522; Practicing AP Historical Thinking)All of these three civilizations continued to develop more political.

China and Europe were looking back to their roots, Europe grew a little further, and China turned back to them. Islam and Europe both worked to expand their religions, and to grow their land and control. China did not. China and Europe both started to explore the water, for different reasons though. Europe gained more by finding the Americas. Islam was split into four parts, a little similar to Europe’s fragmented states. China was a completely unified empire.

What distinguished the Aztec and Inca empires from each other? (pg. 522; Comparison)The Incas and Aztecs dealt with their conquered peoples quite differently. The Aztecs made their conquered pay tribute with material goods and sometimes used them for sacrifice. The Incas made their conquered lands pay with labor and incorporated them into the culture by spreading them out and having men come to the capital to learn the language and culture. The Incas were much larger than the Aztecs. Their religions were similar with moon and sun themes, but the Aztecs required human sacrifice for blood so they had slaves and used conquered people for this purpose. The Inca government and political systems were much larger and more detailed than that of the Aztecs.

How did Aztec religious thinking support the empire? (pg. 525; Description)Their religion forced the Aztecs to conquer more people so they could have human sacrifices. It shaped the Aztec warfare by having Aztecs capture prisoners instead of killing them and it supported the empire by giving them more goods as tribute from conquered people. It also gave them a purpose to strive towards and a motivation: keeping the gods alive with human blood.

The increase in populations gave them better markets filled with many material goods.In what ways did Inca authorities seek to integrate their vast dominions (pg. 526; Description)The Incas were more bureaucratic than Aztecs. They recorded information about people including their marriages, deaths and births. They brought conquered boys to capital to learn the language and foundation of their culture. They also dispersed conquered people across their vast amount of land. In addition, the conquered also worked on Inca buildings as part of their labor. This meant that the people working on these large structures had a history with it, thus incorporating them into the culture.

In what different ways did the peoples of the fifteenth century interact with one another? (pg. 529; Connection)They interacted through webs of empires and big political systems that brought together many different cultures of people. Different religions being spread throughout the world connected cultures that never would have interacted otherwise.

People also interacted through trade routes that had been established for long amounts of time.Vocabulary: provide the definition and significance for each term.Paleolithic persistencePaleolithic persistence is the continuing usage of hunting and gathering methods of societies around the world despite the agricultural advancements in the civilizations surround them. This is significant because it demonstrates how the world found it so economical and useful for so many years. IgboIgbo lays east of the Niger River. Igbo has dense population and extensive trading networks. They are significant because they rejected kingship and state-building.

Instead, they relied on institutions of titles, ranks, associations, hereditary rituals and balanced power among kinship groups. A stateless society.IroquoisIroquois is a  confederacy of 5 tribes. This confederacy was significant because it armed a loose alliance based on an agreement called Great Law of Peace. This gave expression to values of limited government, social equality, and person freedom.TimurTimur was great military general of the Central Asian nomads and was significant for his leadership in the last great conquest of the region. He was known as the hero Genghis Khan who sought to follow his footstep. He reunified most of the original Mongol Empire while dying before invading ChinaFulbeFulbe was a West African pastoralist society that lived in subordination to their farming hosts.

The resented this subordination and adopted Islam, which made them have many religious uprisings. The Fulbe group  was significant because they were one of the first paleolithic societies to adopt religion.Ming dynasty ChinaDuring the Ming Dynasty, China recovered from the recent black plague and began to overcome Mongol domination and eliminate all signs of foreign rule. The Ming Dynasty was significant because it was a turning point for China in which the civilization recovered from its former rule and began to flourish politically, economically, and socially.

Zheng HeZheng He was an imperial officer of the Ming Dynasty. He was significant because he was sent by emperor Yongle to commence oceanic voyages in the Indian Ocean. He gathered many tribute states but did not conquer them. His fleet included thousands of large ships that were much bigger than the later European version of navy fleet.European RenaissanceThe European Renaissance was a time in which Europe transitioned from the Middle Ages into the Modern World. During this time was a cultural rebirth.

The European Renaissance was significant because it was an important time for Europe, as they were advancing and becoming the world superpower.Ottoman EmpireThe Ottoman Empire was created by one of many Turkic groups. By the mid-15th century, it had already encompassed much of the Anatolian peninsula and pushed into southeastern Europe. This empire was significant because in the following centuries, the Ottoman Empire controlled much of the Middle East, Coastal North Africa, Black Sea, and Eastern Europe.Seizure of Constantinople in 1453The Ottoman Empire seized Constantinople in 1453, marking the end of Christian Byzantium. This allowed Ottoman rulers to become successors to the Roman Empire.

This was significant because it lead to the siege of Vienna, and the political and military expansion of Islam.Safavid EmpireThe Safavid Empire controlled Persia as well as adjacent areas in Southeast Asia. Safavid forcefully converted Iran from Sunni to Shi’a, and conflicted with the Ottoman Empire. This empire was significant because the conflict between the Safavid and Ottoman empire significantly decreased the amount of political rule that the Safavids desired.

Songhai EmpireA large empire in West Africa whose capital was Timbuktu; its rulers accepted Islam. Gained control of the salt and gold trade from Mali. Had a powerful army to control region, code of laws, slave trade developed. The Songhai Empire was significant because it was one of four major Islamic civilizations in the 15th century, and took over strategic trade routes.TimbuktuTimbuktu was a city on the Niger River and  became a major trans-Saharan trade and a center of Islamic learning.

Timbuktu was significant because it  helped Islam reach a larger mass of people.Mughal EmpireIslamic imperial power that ruled a large portion of Indian subcontinent. Practiced syncretism in an attempt to combine Islam with neighboring religious practice. The Mughal Empire was significant because it was one of four major Islamic empires, and tried to combine neighboring religions with Islam.MalaccaMalacca was a port city in Southeast Asia, founded about 1400 as a trading center on the Strait of Malacca. Served as an important location for the spread of Islam.

It was significant because it was similar to Timbuktu and  Malacca became a center for Islamic learning in the 15th century.Aztec EmpireThe Aztec Empire was located in Central Mexico. The Aztecs forced defeated people to provide goods and labor as tax.

At its best had complex myth and religious traditions and reached amazing architectural and artistic accomplishments. The Aztecs were significant because they were one of the rising civilizations of the 15th century located in Mesoamerica.Inca EmpireThe Inca Empire was built in South America. It extended from the north to south in the Andes Mountains.

This empire spread language and culture through bureaucratic states. The Inca Empire was significant because it  was the only civilization in South America.

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