page fault occurs when a page that is requested is not loaded into memory by
Operating System. This page fault can be handled in 6 steps as mentioned below.

Firstly, check the memory address that is requested by the process in order to
make sure that the page that is requested is a valid one.

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If the request is valid one then the page is paged in. If it is not valid then
the program must be stopped.

If it is a valid request then follow these steps. Consider the list that
contains free frames to locate a free frame.

Extract the required page from the disk by scheduling the disk operation
(bringing the missing page into memory).

The page is now in memory. Hence, update the page table of current process with
new frame number as soon as the I/O operation completes. Also, change the
invalid page reference such that it is a valid reference now.

Lastly, when this process gets its turn to execute on the CPU, restart the
instruction that caused the page fault from the beginning to execute it

particular, the invalid bit keeps track of the illegal page addresses i.e., the
pages that are not present in the program’s logical address space or memory.
Usually all the entries in the page table comes with a valid bit or an invalid
bit. These bits are used to trap the illegal addresses. If the operating system
sets the bit to be “invalid”, then it means that the particular page is not permitted
to be accessed. When the bit is set as “valid”, then the page is permitted to
be accessible.

advantage of Copy on Write is that it reduces copying by just creating the
pointers to the data. That is the copy of an object is not necessarily made
until it is shared. Using copy on write we can create a number of read-only
copies of data/page/object until any one of the processes (including the original
process) attempt to write to the data/page/object respectively. Now a days,
copy on write is utilized in implementing fork() system call efficiently.

Hard Link: Hard link holds the inode of a specific
document. It is similar to a pointer to the file. At any time we make changes
in certain document or its hard link, the changes will be reflected in both the
files (because hard links consists of the actual content of the document). The hard
link allows us to arrange same document in various places in the system. The
hard links can only refer to a document that is present in its own file system
but not in the directory.

Symbolic Link: Symbolic link is solely the actual
link to the original file or document. If the original file is deleted, then
the symbolically linked file will also be deleted (because the symbolic link is
a direction to primary file). It acts as a pointer to a specific document
present in a folder. Unlike the hard link in which we cannot create link to
directory, using symbolic links we can create links to directory. In other
words these links are also known as shortcuts.

Thrashing is the state of Operating
System in which there is immoderate overhead. Thrashing also results in
intensive degradation in the performance of the CPU. The reason for this is
excessive paging. This means that memory has been used too much to perform unnecessary
activities which made it too limited to execute other required processes.
During thrashing, the CPU spends more of its time on swapping pages. Thrashing
usually occurs when the physical memory becomes ineffective in holding the

paravirtualization are two types of virtualization techniques. Emulation is also
known as hardware virtualization. Emulator has a special software called
hypervisor which is used to emulate or simulate the complete hardware for OS in
a single server. This hardware is given to the guest Virtual Machine. That is
the emulated hardware is unhidden to VM but not the primary hypervisor.
Emulation makes the VM to run on any hardware. Examples of hardware emulators
are VirtualPC for Mac, Bochs etc.

Paravirtualization is a technique in which a physical
hardware is changed and then given to the guest VM by hypervisor (which is
opposite to that of hardware emulator). When paravirtualization is used, the
guest VM will have accessibility to few features of physical hardware. It gives
us high performance. Here, hypercalls are trapped and serviced by the
hypervisor. Example of paravirtualization is VMWare, Xen.

overflow attack is the state in which the buffer overflow is misused by the
program written by the programmer. The program writes to some memory address on
the stack that is not acceptable to be modified by the user. Such cases usually
occur in the programming languages in which array bound checking is not executed
efficiently. When a buffer overflow attack occurs, it often results in program
crash. It can be misused by writing or modifying the precious values in the call
stack of the target machine by the modifier or attacker. This may lead to
execution of the attacker’s own code which may be dangerous to the entire
system. He/she might take the control of the system by creating buffer overflow




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