A. Dutch Elm Disease is caused by a fungus that affects elm trees.

The disease is spread by bark beetles or transmitted by connected roots. The fungus invades the vessels that transports water producing toxins, causing the tree to react and block the advance of the fungus. This combination of the toxins and the trees defense mechanism prevents the flow of water, which causes death of the tree and wilting.

            B. The first report of the disease in Greensboro. Now thedisease occurs in most western and piedmont counties, and goes as far east asHertford, Wayne, Pitt, and Cumberland counties.            C. DED is a fatal disease among most of the elm species.

Italso has affects the habitats of birds who previously used the tree. This leadsto reduced suitability and supply of nests as well as reduced foodavailability.            D. To manage Elm disease start by identifying andremoving infected branches or the entire tree to stop further spread. Then bysoil trenching, isolate the infected trees from the healthy and with the use ofapproved DED fungicide, protect the remaining elms.

Other methods includeplanting other tree species to avoid the disease, fertilize trees to maintainthem in a growing condition, control insect vectors, etc. 2.         A. Pfiesteria, a toxic microscopic algae,can be either autotrophic by performing photosynthesis or heterotrophic byconsuming other organisms.

Pfiesteria doesn’t become toxic until in thepresence of many fish. Their cells then change form and strike the fish with apowerful neurotoxin.            B. Pfiesteria is found in many sites along the NorthCarolina coast, specifically the Neuse, New, and Tar (Pamlico) Rivers.            C. Over time, Pfiesteria has morphed into a toxic fishkiller causing many fish kills and fish sores. It releases a neurotoxin intothe water which suppresses the fish and eating through their skin then proceedsto feed on the weak and exposed tissue, blood, and, skin of the fish.            D.

Pfiesteria flourishes in contaminated waters, sopreventing further pollution causes them to not survive as well.3.         A. Acid rain, a result of airpollution, is the result of the fuels burned from power stations, factories andcars that produce polluting gases. Some of these gases react with the watervapor in the clouds to form nitric and sulphur acids. The rain then falls asvery weak acid from these acidic clouds.            B. Air pollution is brought to the Smoky mountains and AppalachianMountains through emissions from coal fired power plants from the west,surrounding urban and agricultural areas, tractors, and cars.

As the aircurrents flow up, the rainfall deposits the pollutants in acid rain.            C. Research has shown that soils in the Great SmokyMountains receive so much nitrogen from the rain that they suffer from advancednitrogen saturation. This limits the availability of forest nutrients, e.g.

calcium, to plants and causes the release of toxic aluminum harmful to streamlife and vegetation. Mountain streams and forest soils are so highly acidifiedto the point of the health of the park’s high elevation ecosystems being injeopardy. Nitrate levels in some streams are threatening the public healthstandard for drinking water.            D. Taking steps to solving the problem includes findingalternative sources of energy to reduce the pollution by fossil fuels,conserving resources to reduce pollution by sources like power plants, andrestoring the damage made by the rain; for example, liming, to help neutralizethe water. 4.

         A. Waste lagoons are what farmers useto handle billions of gallons of pig waste by using a method called the lagoonand spray field system. In this practice, urine and feces from barns is flushedinto air pits called lagoons that turn pink when pink-colored bacteria colonizethe waste. Farmers then spray liquid manure on their fields nearby, to keep thelagoons from overflowing.            B. Hog farms can be found in a huge amount in EasternNorth Carolina in places like Onslow County.            C. When the lagoons flood, the waste carries harmfulbacteria like salmonella, E.

coli, cryptosporidium, etc. which can causeserious deaths and illnesses and can also contaminate groundwater causing athreat to the main source of drinking water in North Carolina. The phosphorusand nitrogen in hog waste is able kill fish and ecosystems.            D. To solve the problem companies need to change theirway of disposal methods.

For example, a disposal method where nitrogen isconverted into harmless nitrogen gas, another process to eliminate bacteria,and the anaerobic digester results in overall less manure present.  5.         A.

North Carolina’s fire antinfestation arises due to the mild winters, increased residential andindustrial development, and fire ants in the infested nursery and sod stock.Kudzu occurs along rights-of-way, field edges, and near riparian areas. This invasive vine also settled along the ground and into tree canopies.             B. Fire ants were introduced to North Carolina in 1952 inWake and Mecklenburg County.

This introduction of fire ants began to spread in56 counties in southern North Carolina.  Kudzu is commonly found withinthe interstates of North Carolina.C. Fire ants bite withvenom which allows for a chance of allergy as well as damaging fruits such asberries and young crops. Kudzu threatens other plants because it grows quickly,blanketing other plants and encircling their tree trunks and stems. They canalso break branches of shrubs and trees causing the trees to fall over anduproot. The vine can engulf buildings, farm equipment and other structures, aswell as large areas of trees and plots of land.            D.

Fire ants can be controlled using baits. Firstbroadcasting the bait to reduce the number of colonies, and then coming back totreat the individual mounds is the best approach. Before applying theglyphosate herbicide to the kudzu, first cut off the climbing vines in trees atground level. Then mow or weed the ground level patches at the time of thegrowing season so the root crowns are visible.

            6.         A. Beach erosion occurs when a wavebreaks, picking up sand and other sediment from the ocean floor.

The underwatersediment gets washed up onto the beach and as the wave goes back towards theocean, gravity pulls it to the shoreline, carrying along the sediment. Sedimentand sand is repeatedly picked up in one location and transferred downstream onthe beach; as sand gradually erodes away in one place and accumulates furtherdown the beach            B. The waves and wind are what contribute to thecontinuously changing coastline on the eastern coast of North Carolina. Thebarrier islands are fed by sediment from inland rivers, for example, Cape Fear,Roanoke Neuse, and Tar.            C. Severe storms continue to destroy the coastline,eroding beaches which causes flooding and damaging community and businessframework. Shore communities continue to be at risk where the NC coastlinecontinues to reduce as beach erosion continues to occur.

            D. To help control with the beach erosion theconstruction of hard structures like jetties, groins, and seawalls helps tohold the beach sand in place. An alternative method is beach nourishment whichis a practice where large quantities of sand or sediment is added to beaches tobattle the beach erosion and increase beach’s width. 6.         A.

Urban development is a system ofresidential expansion that leads to the creation of cities. Residential areasare the focus of urban development. Urban development occurs by the expansioninto unpopulated cities or the remodeling of decaying areas. Industrializationis the main cause for urbanization. As technology continues to advance, newemployment opportunities open which leads to more people migrating to the city.

            B. In North Carolina, urban development occurs mostly inthe piedmont region and the counties that are ranked the top 10 most urbanizedare Mecklenburg, New Hanover, Wake, Durham, Forsyth, Guilford, Cumberland,Cabarrus, Gaston, and Buncombe county.            C. Urban is the cause for air pollution as more factoriesare created, urban runoff is a result of rainwater which later leads to urbanflooding and water pollution.

It’s also responsible for habitat loss. As citiescontinue to grow large, it leads to the destruction of habitats due toconstruction, and the remaining populations become isolated leading to a lossof biodiversity. This can end up altering the energy flow and nutrient cycles.

            D. To help aid the negative effect of urban developmenton the environment people can use more public transportation, walk, or ride abicycle to reduce air pollution as well as stopping the building on land thatserve as natural habitats to animals.

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