A study of wireless protocols for industrialIoT focusing on performance, security and power efficiency.BackgroundIn recent years, industrial internet of things (Industrial IoT) hasbecome the most popular industrial technical paradigms and business concepts.With the continuous integration of emerging information and communicationtechnologies (ICT), the industry is envisaged to experience a revolution in itsway of operating toward autonomous (Meng Z. et al, 2017). The envisioned industrialsystems can potentially empower collaborative Practices, which promises greaterproduction flexibility and product variability with minimized humaninterventions.

As an example, new services such as real-time event processingor 24/7 access to tracking information will be introduced into the supply chain(Sanchez-Iborra, R. Cano, M. 2016). Having a thorough monitoring systemdeployed all along the manufacturing and supply chain allows enriching thecomplete value chain with precious information, minimizing losses againstunexpected events, and hence improving both business processes and theinformation exchange among stakeholders (Business-to-Business (B2B) networks) (Stock,T. Seliger, G. 2016).

Industrial IoT, incorporates machine learning and big data technology, harnessing the sensor data machine-2-machine (M2M)communication and automation technologies that have existed in industrialsettings for years. What’s changing is that the Industrial IoT concept isdriving the automation industry to ensure greater interoperability of itsproducts. And that means it’s time to find standards to apply to thesetechnologies and their applications.  Related WorkAnalyzing Industrial IoT throughmodelling is to be regarded as the best way of the study for better understandingof the challenges imposed by such systems. As modelling of the Industrial IoTis related to a wide context, we categorize the related work into the followingcategories from i to iv      i.        Research trends in IndustrialIoTGubbi et al. present acloud-centric vision to implement the Industrial IoT worldwide. They discussthe core technologies and application areas that can define the IoT researchdirection in the future.

 While Jara et al. consider thechallenges and opportunities in extending the public IPv4 address space for theInternet of Everything through IPv6 to support the IoT capabilities. Sallai, G.first summarizes the challenges of the Current Internet and draws up thevisions and recent capabilities of the Future Internet and then, Sallai, G.

identifiesthe clusters of the relevant research topics defining them as the chapters ofFuture Internet research activities in a layered model. It includes basicresearch on the Internet Science, the Internet Engineering up to the FutureInternet applications and experiments. While Wirelesssensor networks (WSNs) provide a virtual layer in which the data about thephysical world can be retrieved by any computing system. Alcaraz et al.  emphasize that WSNs are an invaluableresource for realizing the vision of the IoT in terms of integration, securityand other issues. The collection, modelling, reasoning and distribution ofcontext with respect to sensor data as well as context aware computing play acritical role in the IoT applications.

      ii.        Securityand privacy challenges Babar et al. provideanalysis of IoT in the context of security, privacy and confidentiality issuesand propose the Security Model for the IoT (Babaret al. make analyses of the Internet of Things with regard to security, privacyand confidentiality and propose the security model for the Internet of Things.).Weber considers new security and privacy challenges from the internationallegislation that is pertaining to the right to information, provisionsprohibiting or otherwise limiting the use rules on IT security legislation,supporting the use mechanisms of the IoT(Weberconsiders new security and data protection challenges arising frominternational law in relation to the right to information, provisionsprohibiting or otherwise restricting the application of IT security law rules,in support of IoT usage mechanisms.).

Skarmeta et al. propose adistributed capability-based access control mechanism. The latter is based onpublic key cryptography in order to cope with some security and privacychallenges in the IoT. Their solution uses the optimized Elliptic Curve DigitalSignature Algorithm inside the smart object.

Slavin et al. introducethe security requirement patterns that represent reusable security practicesthat software engineers can apply to improve security in their systems. Thepaper proposes a new method that combines an inquiry cycle-based approach with the feature diagram notation to review only relevant patterns andquickly select the most appropriate patterns for the situation(1 Skarmeta et al. propose a distributed,capacity-based access control mechanism.

The latter is based on public keycryptography to address certain security and privacy issues on the Internet ofThings. Your solution uses the optimized digital signature algorithm of theelliptical curve in the Smart object. Slavin et al.

provide templates ofsecurity requirements that represent reusable security practices that softwareengineers can apply to improve the security of their systems. The paperproposes a new method that combines a review cycle approach with scoring of thecharacteristics diagram to examine only those models that are relevant andquickly select the most appropriate ones for the situation.)(2 Skarmeta et al. propose a distributed and capacity-based access controlmechanism. It relies on public key encryption to address certain security andprivacy issues on the Internet of Things. Your solution uses the optimizeddigital signature algorithm of the elliptical curve in the Smart object. Slavinet al. provide models of security requirements that represent reusable safetypractices that software engineers can apply to improve the security of theirsystems.

The document proposes a new method that combines a review cycleapproach with the characteristic diagram notation to examine only the relevantmodels and quickly select those that are best suited to the situation.) . Heer et al. discuss theproblems and application possibilities of the known Internet protocols and securitysolutions in the IoT.

The authors also describe the deployment model and thecore security requirements and emphasize the technical restrictions beingspecific to the standard IP security protocols. (Heer et al. discuss problemsand possibilities to apply known Internet protocols and security solutions inIdOT. The authors also describe the implementation model and basic securityrequirements and focus on the technical limitations of standard IP securityprotocols.) Security and privacy Energy issues within IoTEnergy consumption (EC) is the keyproblem in IoT. Zhou et al. describe the energy models (EMs) of the WSNnode core parts, such as processors, radio frequency modules and sensors. Thebasis of EM is the event trigger mechanism.

The authors first simulate the nodecomponents and then estimate the EC of network protocols using this EM. Themodel presented here is suitable for WSN EC analysis, for evaluation of networkprotocols and for WSN application development.  Schmidt et al. describes a method to construct models forsensor nodes based on few simple measurements. They provide a sample wheremodels are integrated in a simulation environment within the proposed runtimeframework to support the model-driven design process. Measurements show thatthe proposed model enables to significantly reduce EC. Lanzisera et al. propose a’communicating power supply’ (CPS) to enable the communication of energy andcontrol information between the device and a building management system.

.Friedman and Krivolapov describe a study that deals with a combined effect ofpower and throughput performance of the Bluetooth and Wi-Fi usage in smartphones. The study discloses some interesting effects and trade-offs.

Inparticular, the paper identifies many situations in which Wi-Fi is superior toBluetooth, countering previous reports. The study also identifies a couple ofscenarios that are better handled by Bluetooth. The conclusions from this studygive the preferred usage patterns that might be interesting to researchers andsmart phone developers. Venckauskas et al.

present the configurable IoT prototype unitthat enables to perform various experiments in order to determine therelationship between energy and security in various modes of the IoT unit. Thepaper also presents a methodology of measuring the energy of the IoT unit.While applying, the methodology provides results in two different modes: ideal(without effect of noises within a communication environment where the IoT unitworks) and real (with effect of noises).

 (Energy consumption (EC)is a major problem for IoT. Zhou et al. a description of the energy models(EMs) of the central parts of the WSN node such as processors, radio frequencymodules and sensors. EM is based on an event activation mechanism.

The authorsfirst simulate the node components and then evaluate the EC network protocolusing this EM. The model presented here is suitable for the EC WSN analysis,network protocol evaluation and WSN application development.  Schmidt et al. describes the method ofconstructing sensor node models based on a few simple measurements. They form asample in which the models are integrated into a simulation environment withinthe proposed runtime framework to support model-based design. Measurements showthat the proposed model allows a significant reduction of EC. Lanzisera et al.

offer a “Communication Power Supply” (CPS) to enable power andcontrol information communication between the device and the buildingmanagement system…. Friedman and Krivolapov describe a study that deals withthe combined energy and bandwidth effect of the usage of Bluetooth and Wi-Ficonnection in smartphones. The study reveals some interesting effects andcompromises. In particular, they identified many situations where Wi-Fi is abetter solution than Bluetooth, which contrasts with previous reports.

The studyalso identified several scenarios that are better managed by Bluetooth. Theconclusions of this study provide information on preferred usage patterns thatmay be of interest to scientists, researchers and smartphone developers.Venckauskas et al. present a configurable prototype of the IoT, which allowsfor various experiments to be carried out to determine the relationship betweenenergy and safety in different IoT modes. The paper also presents themethodology of energy measurement in the IoT unit. The methodology providesresults in two ways: ideal (without the influence of noise in the communicationenvironment in which IoT operates) and real (with the influence ofnoise).

 )    iii.        Quality of service Shaoshuai et al. propose themulti-objective decision-making using the evaluation model of service quality.This model takes into consideration both the state of the system and the usersettings to improve the model of the QoS validity. The calculated assessment ofthe proposed model can be used as a parameter for estimation and selection ofservice. Jin et al. present various architectures of IoT for smartcity applications and determine their required network QoS. As QoS is one ofthe major networking challenges, the topic is at the focus in both wired andwireless networks.

In WSNs, many researches pursue problems related to radiointerfaces and radio noise interference. Fok et al. state that, in order to meet the individualneeds of many systems, users require multi-dimensional QoS. In this respect,the authors present a simple abstraction mechanism, which consists of QoSfunctions of each application. This function combines various aspects of QoSfor each user to a single value, which is used to define the best method ofinteraction.

Liang et al. address the discontinuousreception/transmission (DRX/DTX) optimization, by asking how to maximize thesleep periods of devices while guaranteeing their QoS, especially on theaspects of traffic bit rate, packet delay and packet loss rate in the IoTapplications. There are proposed efficient schemes to optimize DRX/DTXparameters and schedule devices’ packets with the base station. The main ideaof the presented scheme is the balance between the QoS parameters and DRX/DTXconfigurations. Simulation results show that schemes can guarantee traffic bitrate, packet delay and packet loss rate while saving energy of user equipment.  Shaoshuai et al.provides decision making through a model for evaluating service quality.

Thistemplate takes into account both the system status and the user settings toimprove the QoS validity model. The calculated evaluation of the proposed modelcan be used as a parameter for evaluating and selecting the service. Jin et al.introduces different IoT architectures for intelligent urban applications anddefines your desired QoS network. Since QoS is one of the biggest networkchallenges, this topic focuses on wired and wireless networks. Several studieswithin the framework of the WSM deal with radio interface and interferenceproblems. Seal et al. claim that users need a multidimensional QoS to meet theindividual needs of several systems.

In this sense, the authors present asimple abstraction mechanism consisting of the QoS function of each application.This function combines different aspects of QoS for each user in a value thatis used to define the best method of interaction. Liang et al. aims atdiscontinuous reception/transmission optimization (DRX/DTX) and asks how tomaximize device downtime while ensuring QoS for devices, especially in terms ofbit rate, packet delay and packet loss rate for IoT applications. Pproposedefficient schemes  are provided tooptimize the DRX/DTX parameters and the device packages programmed with a basestation. The basic idea of the schema is a well-balanced relationship betweenQoS parameters and DRX/DTX configurations. Simulation results show that schemescan guarantee traffic bit rate, packet delay and packet loss rate while savingenergy for the user’s devices.

  Aim                    The aim of this project is to providea study of wirelessprotocols for industrial IoT focusing on performance, security and powerefficiency targeting to identifying the abstract security–energy relationships forthe variety of wireless communication protocols to provide the energyperformance measurements (using the created environment and the IoT unit) inorder to test the feature models and to obtain the concrete characteristics ofthe relationships.Approach& MethodologyTheproject will focus on analysing wirelessprotocols for industrial IoT focusing on performance, security and powerefficiency.In addition to the typical tasks of conducting aliterature review and thesis writing, we also envisage thefollowing research tasks (RT) in this project.RQ1:What are the wireless protocol with enhance performance, security and power efficiency?Research efforts will focus on understanding and utilising the relationship anddependencies between the performance,security and power efficiency.RQ2: Experimentation/simulationto test and validate the different wireless protocol.Timeline Activities First Year Second Year S1 S2 S1 S2 Literature review Research design/experimentation Output 1=Results from Research design/experimentation from S1 of first year Data aggregation Research design/experimentation Output 2= Results from Research design/experimentation S1 of second year Output 3 = Results from Output 2 after Research design/experimentation Research design/experimentation Thesis compilation and final defence  Expected OutcomesAs part of this research anticipated outcomes,we expect to have1.     Identifying a suitable wireless protocolsthat will enhance performance, security and power efficiency in industrial IoT.2.

     At least two research publications in the targeted journals andconferences in the table below.  Targeted Journals 1 IEEE Internet of Things Journal 2 Journal of Networks 3 International Journal of Communication Systems Targeted Conferences 1 International Conference on Advanced Technologies for Communications  2 International Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conference (ITNAC) 3 International Australasian Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conference (ATNAC)  ReferencesAlcaraz C, Najera P, Lopez J, Roman R.Wireless sensor net-works and the internet of things: do we need a completeintegration? Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on the Security ofthe Internet of Things (SecIoT’10); 2010.

Babar S, Mahalle P, Stango A, Prasad N,Prasad R. Proposed security model and threat taxonomy for the Internet ofThings (IoT). Recent Trends in Network Security and Applications Communicationsin Computer and Information Science 2010; 89:420–429.Fok CL, Julien C, Roman GC, Lu C. Challengesof satisfying multiple stakeholders: quality of service in the Internet ofThings. Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Software Engineering for SensorNetwork Applications. 2011; 56–60.

Heer T, Garcia-Morchon O, Hummen R, Keoh SL,Kumar SS, Wehrle K. Security challenges in the IP-based Internet of Things.Wireless Personal Communications 2011; 61(3):527–542.Friedman R, Krivolapov Y. On power andthroughput tradeoffs of WiFi and Bluetooth in smartphones. IEEE Transactions onMobile Computing 2013; 12(7):1363–1376. Jara AJ, Ladid L, Skarmeta A. The Internet ofEverything through IPv6: an analysis of challenges, solutions andopportunities.

Journal of Wireless Mobile Networks, Ubiquitous Computing, andDependable Applications (JoWUA) 2013; 4(3):97–118.Jin J, Gubbi J, Luo T, Palaniswami M. Networkarchitecture and QoS issues in the internet of things for a smart city.

Proceedings of the International Symposium on Communications and InformationTechnologies (ISCIT).IEEE. 2012 Oct.; 956–961.

Lanzisera S, Weber AR, Liao A, Pajak D, MeierAK. Communicating power supplies: bringing the internet to the ubiquitousenergy gateways of electronic devices. IEEE Internet of Things Journal 2014;1(2):153–160. Liang JM, Chen JJ, Cheng HH, Tseng YC.

Anenergy-efficient sleep scheduling with QoS consideration in 3GPP LTE-advancednetworks for Internet of Things. IEEE Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuitsand Systems 2013; 3(1):13–22. Michael Bowne, Standardsand Protocols for the Industrial Internet of Things.url https://www.automationworld.com/article/topics/industrial-internet-things/standards-and-protocols-industrial-internet-things. PINorth America, on February 19, 2015 Meng, Z. Wu, Z.

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com/1424-8220/16/5/708, ISSN 1424-8220. Schmidt D, Kramer M, Kuhn T, When N. Energymodelling in sensor networks.

Advance in Radio Science 2007; 5:347–351.Shaoshuai F, Wenxiao S, Nan W, Yan L.MODM-based evaluation model of service quality in the Internet of Things.

Procedia Environmental Sciences 2011; 11:63–69. Stock,T. Seliger, G. Opportunities of sustainable manufacturing in Industry 4.0. Procedia CIRP 2016, 40, 536–541. ?Skarmeta AF, Hernández-Ramos JL, Moreno MV.

Adecentralized approach for security and privacy challenges in the Internet ofThings. IEEE World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT) 2014 : 67–72. Slavin R, Lehker J-M, Niu J, Breaux TD.

Managing security requirements patterns using feature diagram hierarchies.Proceedings of the 22nd International Requirements Engineering Conference (RE),IEEE. 2014 Aug; 193–202. Venckauskas A, Jusas N, Kazanavicius E,Stuikys V. Identification of dependency among energy consumption and Wi-Fiprotocol security levels within the prototype module for the IoT. Elektronikair Elektrotechnika 2014; 20(6):132–135.Weber RH. Internet of Things—new security andprivacy challenges.

Computer Law & Security Review 2010; 26(1):23–30.Zhou HY, Luo DY, Gao Y, Zuo DC. Modeling ofnode energy consumption for wireless sensor networks. Wireless Sensor Network2011; 3:18–23.

 

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