?? ????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ???? ???????? .???????:???? ?? ???? ??? :????????????:- ???????? ??????? (?????????? – ?????????? –?????????? – ????????? – ?????????)????????? ??????:1- ?? ????? ?????? (Naturally occurring sugar substitutes)- ????????? 2- ?????? ????????????  (Synthetic sugar substitutes) ?????? ?????? ????? ???? , ??? ???? ??????????? ??????.???? ????? ????????? ???????????? ??? ???? ??????? ????? ???? ?????? ???????? ??? :       ????????? – ???????? – ?????????? –????????? ?????????? – ????????? – ???????? – ?????????????????? ???????? :       2- ???????????????(??????) : *??????????(Sorbitol- E420)???? ?? ???????? , ?????? 50% ?? ????? ??????? , ???? ???????? ???????? ?????? , ???? ?? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????????.????? ????? ????? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ????? ??????? ???????? ????? (???????????? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??fructolysis)*?????????(Mannitol – E421)???? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ???????? (???? 50% ??????? , 50% ????????)?? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? 60% ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ??????*??????????(Maltitol – E965)???? ?? ???????? , ?????? ???? 75 : 90% ?? ?????????????, ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? , ?? ???? ??????????? ??? ????? ????? ??? ?????? ????*??????????(Lactitol – E966)???? ?? ???????? , ?????? 40% ?? ????? ??????? , ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? , ?????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? , ???? ??????? ??? ???? ???????.?????????? ?????????? ???? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????? (???????? ???????????????????????) ?????? ???? ????? ? ?????? ???????? ???????? ????? ????? ?????????????? ???? ????? ??? ??????? ????? ??????? (diahrrea) ??????????? ?? ????????? ?? ???????? ????????.*?????????( Xylitol – E967)?????? ???? ?? ????? ??????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ???????????????? , ??? ?????? , ??????? ??? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ????? ????????? ???? ?????? ??????????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????????????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ????????????????? ???????? non-nutritive sweetener  : ??????? ????? ???? ?????? ???????? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ???? ????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ???????.???? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????? ????? ???? ???? ?? ??????????? ???????.

?????: ????????????????: -????????? (Stevia)    ?? ????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ????? ???? ???????. Steviarebaudiana???? ????????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? .   ???? ????? ????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ????? ???????? .   ?????? 200 – 300 ??? ???????? ???????, ????????? ?????? ??????? ?????? 12 ??? /??? ????? ????? .

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

       ???????????? ???? ?? ??????? ??? ???? steviol ,??? ??????? ?? ??feces , ?????? ????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? steviolglucoronide????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ??????? ?????? ??????.??????: ???????? ??????? ??????? :*?????????(Aspartame – E951)  ????? ???1965  ????? ??? ??? ??????????? ???? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ? ??????  ???????????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????? , ?????? ??? ????????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????? ?? ??? ???? ???? ????? ??  Aspartyl phenyl alanine methyl ester  ???? ???? ???? ??? ?? ????????? ????? ???????????? ?? ????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????, ??? ????? ???? ?? ?????????????? ??????? ???? ???? ???? , ?????? ??? ???? ???? ???? ??????? .          ?? ????? ?? ????????????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ?? ????? ??  %50 ?????? ?????? ?%40??? ???????? %10 ??????? ,?????????? ???? ?? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ????? ?????? , ????? ????? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ????????? ??????? ?? ???????? . ??????? ?????? (Soffritti et al.,2005) ??? ????????????????? ???????? ???? ?????? , ?????? ????? Spraguedawley fetal rats????? ????? ????? ?? ???????? ??????? ?? ???? ??????? , ?????? ???? ??????????????? ???? ?? ?????? ??????? , ?????? ???? ????? ????? ?? ?????? .

??? ???????? ???? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????????,??? ???? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? 20  ???/??? ?? ??? ????? ?? ??? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? , ????? ???? ??????? ??????? ????? ??????? ???? ????????? 2007 ???? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ????????? ??? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??? 14 ??? ???? ?????? ?? ????? 2 , ????? ?? ???????? ??? ????? ????????? ????????? ???? ?????? ????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ????? ???????,????? ???? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ????? ????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ???? :???????? Aspartil- ?????? Equal- ??????????Neutrasweet  ?????? ???? ???????? ???????? ??? ??? ??????????? ???????? ??????? 180 :200  ??? ??? ????? ??????? .?????? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ???????????????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? .??? ???????? ???? ?? ??? ????? ????????????? ????????? FDA??? 1981        ?????????? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? ????? (PKU) ??????????? ??????? ?????? .

        ????????? ?????? ??????? ????????? FDA ????????? ?????? ????????????? 50 ??? /??? ?? ??? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???? ??????? ???????? ???? ????????? ?????? ??????? ? 40 ???/ ??? ????? ????? ? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ??? ???? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????? (JECFA) ??????????? WHO & FAO  *??? ?????????? (Cyclamic acid – E952 )           ???? ??? ??? ??????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ? ???? ?????? ???? 30 ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ????? ???? (Sugar twin – Sucaryl) , ?????? ?? ????? ???????????????? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ???????? ?? ???????? ??????? ??? 1970 ???????????? ???? ????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???? ?????????????? .           *????????(Saccharin –E954)         ????? ??? 1879 ??? ????? ?? ??????? ????????? ?????? ????? 550 ??? ????? ??????? ???? ????????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ???? ?? ????????? ?? ??? ???? ????? ??? ???????? ?? ???????? ??????? ????? ??? 1977 ? ????????????? ??? ???? ?? ???????? ??????? ???? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ?? ????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ?? ????? ?????????? ??? ?? ????????? ???? ????? ?? ??? ??????? ???? ????? ???? ????????????????? ?? ???????? ??????? ?? ??? ??? ??????? ? ???? ?????????? ?? ????? ????????? .?????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????????? ???????  ????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???? ???????? ????? ??????? Sweet n low  , ????? ???? ???? ???????? ????? ????? ?????????????? ??? ????? ???? ?? ????? ????????? ????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ?????? ? ???????? ??????? ????? ?????? ? ??? ???? ???? ?????????????? ??????? JECFA))???????? ??? WHO & FAO ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? SCF????????? ?????? ??????? ? 5???/ ??? ?? ??? ????? .

   *?????????(Sucralose – E955)           ??????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ??????? 3 ??????????????? ?3???? ???? ? ????? ??????? ??Splenda  ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?????????????????? ???? ?????? ? ?? ??? 1998 ???? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ? ??? ?????? ????????? ?? ??????? ???? ??? .????? ????????? ???? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ???? ????? ???? ???? ?????? 600 ??? ????? ????? ?????? ? ???????????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????? , ??? ???? ??????? ?? ?? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ? ?? ???? ??? ????? ????? ?? ???? .??? ???? ???? ??????? ??????? ??????? JECFA)) ??????????? WHO & FAO??????? ??????? ?????? ???? ??????? ???????? SCF ??????????????? ??????? ? 15 ???/ ??? ?? ??? ????? .     *???????? ?????????? (Acesulfame K –E950) ?? ???????? ???????? ????? ??????? ? ???? ??????? ????  sweet one& Sunett ? ???? ???????? ?? ???????????? , ???? ???? ?????? 130 ??? ????????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????????????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ???????????? ???????? , ? ????? ??? ?? ??? ????? ???????? ???????? , ?????? ???????????? ???????.??? ???? ?????? (Bian et al.,2017) ??? ????? Ace-K ??????????? ??????? ????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????? 16SrRNA & (GC-MS) ???? ????????? Ace-K??? ??? ???????? ??????? ?? CD-1 mice ??? 4 ?????? ?????????? . ???? ????? ????? ,???? ?? ??????? ???????? ??????? ,????? ???????????????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ,?????? ??????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ????? ????? ,?? ?????? ???? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ,??? ???????ACE-k  ??? ????? ?????? ????? ????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ????? ????? ??????? ?? :        -1 Ace-K ??? ???????? ?? ?????? ??? .        -2 Ace-K ??? ???????????? ??????? .

        -3 Ace-K ?? ??????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? .        -4 Ace-K ??? ???? ??????? ???????? ?????? lipopoly saccharide         -5 Ace-K ??? ???????? ??????? ??????? .??? ???? ???? ???????? ??? ??? ????????? ????? ????? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ??? ???? .??? ???????? ???? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ????????? FDA ??? 1998 ???? ???? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??? ??????? ?? ??????? ????????? ?? ????????? ??????? ? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ????????? FDA ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????? ????? ??????? ???? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????? ???????? ?????????? .???? ???? ??????? ??????? ??????? JECFA)) ???????? ??? WHO& FAO  ????????? ?????? ??????? ? 9 ???/ ??? ????? ????? ?? ???? ????? 15??? /??? ?? ??? ????? ????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?? ?? ???????? ??????? ????? ? ??? ?? ????????????? ?????? ???? ??????? ???????? SCF  ????? ??????? ?????  9???/ ??? ?? ??? ????? .    *????????( Neotame )           ?? ???? ?? ????????? ??????? ?????? ??? 7000 ??? 13000 ????????????? , 30 ??? 60 ??? ???????????? ???? ???????? ??? ??????? ?? ??????? ????????? ??? ???? ??????????????? .???? ???????? ?? ???? ??????? ???:Aspartame& 3,3 dimethyl butyl aldehyde???? ???????? , ???????? , ?????? .???? ?????????? ???????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?????? ?? esterases  ????? ?? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? – ??? ?????????? ????????????? ?????? – ????? ??? ????? ?? ????????? .

???? ???????? ????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????? , ??????? ???????? ????? ???? 72 ???? .???? ?????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ????? , ???????? ?????? , ??????? ????????? ?????? ???????? , ???? ????? ???? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?????? , ?? ??? , ??? ??????? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ????? ???? ????? , ??????? ????? ????? .?? ???? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????? , ????? ?? ????? ???????? , ?????? ,?????? ??????? , ?????? , ??????? , ????????? , ??????? , ??????? ??????? ,??????  ?????????? (Advantame)            ??? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ????????? , ????? ??? ???????? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ????????????????? ???????? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ???? ?? ??????? 20000 ??????????? ???? ???????? ?????????? ???? ?????? 200 ??? ?????????? ???? ????? ???? ?? ?????????? ???? ??????? ???????????? ??FDA ???????????? 2014         ??????? ??? ??? : ?? ???????? ???????? ????? ???? ?? ???? ?? ???? ???????? ?????? ?????? ???? ??? :????????????? ???????? :?????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????? (???? ??????? ????? ??? ??????? ????????) .

???????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ???????? ??????? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ????? ?????????? ????? .        ???????????? ???????? ?? ???? ??? ?????????? ?? ????? ????? ????? ???? .        ?????? ??? ???? ??????? .        ????????????? ????? ???? ?? ??? ???????? ???????? .????? ???????? ????????:????? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ??? ???????????????? ????????? ??????? ???? ????? ??????? ???? ??????? ?? ?????? .       ??? ????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ????? ?????? , ????? , ?????? ??????? .

       ????? ????? ????? ???????????? ?? ???????? ???? ??? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????? .       ????? ????? ????? ?????????? ???? ???????? ???????? ?? ???? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? .??? ??????? ???? ??? ???????? ???????????????? ?????? ??? ??????? , ???? ????? , ?????? ?????? , ?????? ??? ??????? ,??????????? ???????? ?? ????.???? ??? ???? ??????( Findikli,Zeynepet al., 2014)??? ?? ???? ?? ????????? ?????????? , ????????? , ???????? ?????????????? ??? ??DNA  . ??? ???? ??? ?? ???????? ??????? ???? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ????? ???? ?????? ????? .???????? ??????? ??? :????? ????? ???????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ???? ?????? .

       ??????? ?????? ?????? ???? ???????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ???? .

x

Hi!
I'm Erica!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out