Stakeholder is anyone who gets effected, directly or
indirectly by the project.  The concept
of project management through stakeholders is defined as “the process of
adjusting with the scheme and planning apprehensions and proposals of different
stakeholders” (PMI
2008).
Stakeholder’s have not been properly incorporated and engaged from the
beginning of the projects, this negligence and casual attitude of project
members have made them a high priority risk that may arise at any phase of the
project (Khan,
Skibniewski et al. 2017).
There is a mass of projects that have been pre-maturely terminated or ended up
even before the implementation phase due to neglecting the impact or concerns
of stakeholders (Pirozzi
2017).
Projects may involve large number of both the primary and secondary
stakeholders and every stakeholder has his own interests, concerns and
expectations with the project due to which they try to mold the project in a
way that best addresses their concerns and are in their own favor (Heravi,
Coffey et al. 2015),
which makes it’s a difficult task to satisfy each single stakeholder but it’s a
challenge that has to be accepted by project managers if they want the project
to succeed. Majority of project management practitioners and researchers assert
that there is a positive relationship between early stakeholder’s management
and project success (Aapaoja,
Haapasalo et al. 2013).

Stakeholder management and engagement if incorporated
at the early stages of projects can be a supplement to probability of project
success which is not a very common practice among the ongoing projects in
developing countries (Guest 2014). Especially in context of civil
infrastructure projects there exists different stakeholders e.g. local
community, Media, competitor organizations, political representatives, which
may not be either legally bound by the project or have a direct relationship
with the project but they can adversely affect the project progress if they are
left unattended by the project manager (Mascia
2016).

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