70 percent of Earth’s surface is covered by oceans which play anessential role in the process of atmospheric circulation, that is why meteorology is to observe theweather over the oceans, which allows navigational deck officers to executevoyage planning properly and avoid perils and risks at sea by forecasting theweather with different means of computerized technologies and devices.Nowadays, there are plenty of weather forecasting services providereliable data enabling efficient day-to-day accomplishment of on boardoperations such as weather-routing, loading and discharging of cargo, and otherseagoing routine operations. Therefore, it is extremely important to have anaccess to the forecast information and ability to put into practice the knowledgein order to maintain the safety of life at sea and avoid unforeseen calamities.A competent deck officer should possess good seamanship which combinesall the knowledge and skills to bring the vessel, crew and consignment on boardsafely to the point of destination. Therefore, knowledge in meteorology inmaritime transportation is crucial.
The goal of this project is to make anextensive research on the innovations in meteorology and the proper use ofthese inventions on board according to the competence of the deck officer. 1.2 Research questions and objectivesThis section is to identify whichquestions will cover the research along with its objectives. The questions are: • To what extent meteorology in maritime industry isimportant?• Is the crew on board qualified and certified for theknowledge of meteorology and oceanography?• Can the crew on board use knowledge gained and putit into practice?• Are the innovations relevant and what functions theyimplement?• Is the quality of the technology involved inmeteorology reliable?The objectives are: • To collect usefulinformation from maritime sites, publications and internet resources • To make a literature review and summarizecollected data • To make a list of technical terms foundin reading sources • To analyze the statistics and theinformation found to make clear approach of the research of the meteorology inmaritime industry 1.3Methodology 1.
Conducta literature review on innovations of meteorology from credible sources such asbooks, journals, and internet pages for complete understanding of topic.2. Makean analysis of problems that can face the user while running the technology andfind possible solution.3. Tomake conclusion.2. Glossary ? Term Definition Example 1. Meteorology The branch of scientific study of atmosphere and its phenomena5 Meteorology based on the periodic observations of weather.
2. Oceanography The scientific study based on the description of the ocean5 Oceanography studies variables of the sea such as wind speed, current. 3. RADAR(RAdio Detection And Ranging) The device used to determine at a single station the direction and distance of an object. By measuring time taken till the emitted signal will reach the distant object and return.
10 User can find information about sea state on the screen of RADAR 4. National Meteorological and Hydrological Services(NMHSs) Service which provide weather and climate prediction models from which local and global forecasts are generated4 National Meteorological and Hydrological Services is to promote long-term observation. 5. Joint Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology(JCOMM) Worldwide marine meteorological and oceanographic communities which are working to respond to interdisciplinary requirements for met/ocean observations, data management and service products.6 JCOMM provides systems for the coordination of weather observations. 6. Drifting buoy Buoys collecting meteorological data placed over the oceans to send information for weather forecasting services1 Drifting buoys are used to collect meteorological data.
7. GPS(Global Positioning System) A system of 24 Earth-orbiting satellites which provides location-specific information as precise as tens of meters4 GPS is a compulsory equipment to be carried on board. 8. GIS(Global Information System) System which is capturing, storing, analyzing and managing data and associated attributes which are spatially referenced to the Earth.4 GIS in combination with GPS provides technological device for NMHSs to improve weather public service delivery 9. IMO(International Maritime Organization) The United Nations specialized agency with responsibility for the safety and security of shipping and the prevention of marine pollution by ships.9 IMO was established in Genova in 1948.
10. Forecast A processing of the collected data from various data collecting installations and predicting weather by analysis based on observations10 Forecast of sandstorm near the west coast of Africa was received. 11. STCW International Convention adopted by IMO on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers9 STCW requirements were adopted in 1978.
12. SOLAS International Convention on Safety Of Life At Sea9 SOLAS sets minimum requirements to maintain safety of life at sea 13. Absolute humidity The ratio of the mass of water vapor to the total volume of the air, expressed in g/m?7 The absolute humidity as a whole decreases as the temperature falls. (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 6, Slice 5) 14. Relative humidity The ratio of the existing amount of water vapor in the air at a given temperature to the maximum amount that could exist at that temperature, expressed in percent7 Relative humidity is expressed in percentage 15. Psychrometer An instrument used to measure the water vapor content of the air.
7 Psychrometer consists of two thermometers. 1) Stander J.Importance of Marine Meteorological Observations in support of services, nodate. Online Retrieved from: https://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/IMOP/publications/IOM-125_TECO_2016/Session_4/K4A_Stander_JCOMM.
pdf Accessed January 25 2018 2) Furgo.Offshore weather forecasting services, nodate. Online Retrieved from: https://www.fugro.com/our-services/marine-asset-integrity/monitoring-and-forecasting/offshore-weather-forecasting-services Accessed January 25 20183) IMO. (2006June 1) IMO Publication Carriage Requirements On BoardVessels. Online Retrieved from: https://www.admiralty.
co.uk/AdmiraltyDownloadMedia/Flag%20State%20Table%20Docs/IMO-MSC-MEPC-2-Circ2-on-carriage-of-publications.pdf Accessed January 25 20184) John L. Guiney, (2008) Innovations and NewTechnology for Improved Weather Services, 57(4) Online Retrieved from: https://public.
wmo.int/en/bulletin/innovations-and-new-technology-improved-weather-servicesAccessed January 25 20185) IMarEST:The Institute of Marine Engineering,Science and Technology,Oceanographyor Marine Meteorology.no date. Online Retrievedfrom: https://www.imarest.org/membership/education-careers/careers-in-the-marine-profession/how-about-oceanography-or-marine-meterology 6) The Joint WMO-IOC Technical Commission forOceanography and Marine Meteorology.
no date. Online Available from: http://www.jcomm.info/Accessed January 25 20187) Glossary of Meteorological Terms, no date.
Online Retrieved from: https://novalynx.com/store/pc/Glossary-of-Meteorological-Terms-A-d9.htm Accessed January 25 20188) KNMI (Royal NetherlandsMeteorological Institute)Software TurboWin, (2017) Online Retrieved from:http://projects.knmi.
nl/turbowin/ AccessedJanuary 25 2018 9) International Maritime Organization. Introduction to IMO, no date. OnlineRetrieved from: http://www.
imo.org/en/About/Pages/Default.aspx Accessed January 25 2017.10) International MeteorologicalVocabulary, WMO – No.
182 (1986) Online Retrievedfrom: http://wmo.multitranstms.com/MultiTransWeb/Web.mvc Accessed January 25 2017. 3. Notecards Marine forecasts and warnings Met Office Shipping forecasts and storm warnings are to be reliable and received timely.
no date Online Retrieved from: https://www.metoffice.gov.uk/public/weather/ marine Accessed January 25 2018 IMO Publication Carriage Requirements IMO On Board Vessels Compulsory carriage of Nautical Charts and publications on board such as Admiralty Sailing Directions, Ocean Passages for the World which describes weather of certain area. (2015) Online Retrieved from: https://www.amnautical.
com/blogs/news/17586460-imo-publication-carriage-requirements-on-board-vessels#.Wmwgyd9l-Uk Accessed January 25 2018 Innovations and New Technology for Improved Weather Services John L. Guiney Improved ways to transmit data-based weather forecast all over the ocean by digital, graphical formats. (2008) Online Retrieved from: https://public.wmo.int/en/bulletin/innovations-and-new-technology-improved-weather-servicesAccessed January 25 2018 Sofware Turbowin 5.5 KNMI (Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute) On board meteorological observations by competent crew is a vital source of information to plan voyage and prepare for future events.
Crew can easily enter observed data to TurboWin program. (2017) Online Retrieved from: http://projects.knmi.nl/turbowin/ Accessed January 25 2018 Importance of Marine Meteorological Observations Stander J. Provision of forecasts and warnings to seagoing and offshore operations to avoid severe weather conditions which can negatively affect the process of trade and offshore service.
no date. Online Retrieved from: https://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/IMOP/publications/IOM-125_TECO_2016/Session_4/K4A_Stander_JCOMM.pdf Accessed January 25 2018 How to be prepared to bad weather conditions Wankhede A. The knowledge of competent deck officer is a vital thing to minimize the dangers during rough sea by taking basic precautions to avoid risks.
Marine Insight. (2016) What to do When Ship Encounters Rough Weather? Online Retrieved from: https://www.marineinsight.com/marine-safety/what-to-do-when-ship-encounters-rough-weather/ Accessed January 25 2018