The Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), was developed by Fishbein and Ajzen (Ajzen & perceive this behavior, which may affect the performance of the behavior.

Since behaviors that are not entirely volitional are also influenced by the individual’s perception of his or her ability to perform the behavior. Ajzen (1985) added an additional factor, perceived behavioral control, to the theory as an indicator of the behavioral intentions, developing a new theory named the theory of planned behavior (TPB).The TRA and TPB have been applied to many behaviors including safe sex (Bowen, Williams, McCoy, & McCoy, 2001), diet (Arvola, Lahteenmaki, & Tuorila, 1999), smoking (Bursey & Craig, 2000), and other behaviors (Hillhouse, Turrisi, & Kastner, 2000; McKinlay, Couston, & S, 2001; Millstein, 1996; Syrjala, Niskanen, & Knuuttila, 2002). These theories have been used to explore and predict behaviors in various age groups, including adolescents, college students, and adults (Bogers, Brug, Van Assema, & Dagnelie, 2004). Numerous studies used the TRA and TPB to investigate smoking behaviors among adolescents. For instance, Harakeh used TPB to examine the impact of parental smoking on adolescents smoking habit(Harakeh, Scholte, Vermulst, de Vries, & Engels, 2004). Hanson (1999) employed TPB to investigate the beliefs related to smoking among adolescents from various races.

Despite the fact that TRA and TPB have been employed to predict smoking attitudes among adolescents in Western cultures and the United States, it is still unknown whether adolescents from all over the world who come from different cultural and economic backgrounds share the same beliefs or attitudes. Fishbein, 1980; Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975). It mainly explores the impacts of cognitive components, such as intentions, social norms, and attitudes, on behaviors. This theory suggests that a behavior or a norm adopted by an individual is affected by how other people. 


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