5.1.1 Cylinder Block Cylinder block isthe shell of the engine; the cylinder and piston is present inside the cylinderwithin which the fuel is burnt. The main function of cylinder block is torobustly withstand and facilitate the combustion of fuel.

Inside the cylinder,the fuel mixed with air is ignited making the cycle of compression andexpansion that drives the engine. The combustion of fuel brings extremetemperature and pressure that requires the cylinder block to be able to withstand harsh conditions. Cooling methods for the longevity of the continuousprocess supports and extends the life of cylinder block. The cylinder block ismanufactured through casting process of cast iron. 45 5.1.

2 Cylinder head The cylinder headis fixed at the upper side of the cylinder block. The function of a cylinderhead is to seal the cylinder block to avoid any leakage of air or fuel mixturesfrom the cylinder and to act as a mount for the ignition system i.e. valvetrain, spark plug or fuel injector. Cylinder head is manufactured by casting orforging of cast iron or aluminum. 45 5.1.3 Piston  Piston is one ofthe primary parts in the engine.

Its function is to use the energy of expandinggas in the cylinder to move itself in reciprocating motion. The piston isconnected to the crankshaft via a connecting rod to transfer its energy. Thereciprocating motion of piston creates an imbalance manifesting as vibration ofthe engine that requires dampeners to absorb the vibration. Mechanical loss isexperienced during the transfer of linear motion in piston to rotational motionin crankshaft.  As the energy supplied bythe piston is not continuous in nature, the rotation of the crankshaft is notsmooth. This brings the heavy flywheels into design for smoothening andmaintaining constant inertia to the crankshaft that stabilize the variableirregular energy supply from the engine. Valves and camshaft system presentinside the cylinder head above the engine controls the supply of fuel andremoval of burnt fuel from the cylinder. 45 Pistons are madefrom cast aluminum alloy.

Component feature of the piston are the piston headthe top surface of the piston, piston pin bore a hole through the piston,piston pin a hollow shaft that connects the piston and the connecting rod,skirt the bottom portion of the piston, piston rings are the expandable splitring acting as a seal between the cylinder and the piston, ring grooves the attachmentarea for the piston rings and ring lands is the sealing surface of the pistonring. 45 5.1.4 Connecting rod The connectingrod connects the piston and the crankshaft. It serves as the medium to transferthe power from the reciprocating motion of piston to the crankshaft.

Theconnecting rod is made from steel and aluminum. Any mistake in themanufacturing of connecting rod can cause a catastrophic engine failure. Themost common connecting rod used in nearly every type of engine is the cast rod,made from molding of molten steel. 45 5.1.

5 Crankshaft  The crankshaft isconnected to the connecting rod this is where the engine reciprocating motionof piston is converted to rotatory motion and transferred to the flywheel. Theengine’s crankshaft is usually made of very heavy cast iron. The crankshaft’smaterial has to be very strong to withstand the everlasting stress it receivesfrom the constant push and pull from the pistons. 45 5.1.

6 Camshaft  The function ofcamshaft is to open and close the inlet and exhaust valves of the engine atsynchronized timing to make the engine run itself smoothly. The perfection intiming is essential to obtain maximum power and efficiency. The camshaft also drivesthe distributor to synchronize spark ignition. Camshafts are usually connectedwith the engine rotation i.e. the rotation of the crankshaft through a set ofgears or belt drives. It contains lobes that activate the valve train.

In manycases, 2 camshafts are present in the engine, one controls the inlet valves andthe other controls the exhaust valves. The production of camshaft is by forgingprocess usually made out of one piece of steel. Each cylinder of the enginewill be associated with 2 lobes of the camshaft for the inlet and exhaustvalves. The camshaft additionally has one extra lobe for the fuel pump. Thecamshaft operates the lifters through its lobes; the lifters operate the restof the valve train. 45  5.

1.7 Flywheel The crankshaft isattached to the flywheel. The function of flywheel is to provide an inertialmass to store the rotational energy. It is essential as the engine onlydelivers power in power strokes and during the remaining time, the rotation iscarried over by the flywheel. Flywheels assist to provide a smooth powerdelivery as output. The rotational inertia of the flywheel facilitates a slowerminimum unloaded speed. The flywheel also balances the system by its weight androtation.

The clutch or the torque converter is attached to the flywheel wherethe power is further transferred to the wheels. The flywheel is manufacturedthrough casting process. 45

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