4.         Nelson was a British
naval commander. Born
on 29 September 1758 in Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk, Horatio Nelson was the sixth
of the 11 children of a clergyman. He joined the navy aged 12, on a ship
commanded by a maternal uncle. He became a captain at 20. As a commander he was
known for bold action, and the occasional disregard of orders from his seniors.
At the Battle of the Nile in 1798, he successfully destroyed Napoleon’s fleet
and thus his bid for a direct trade route to India. In 1801, Nelson was
promoted to vice-admiral.

5.         Over
the period 1794 to 1805, under Nelson’s leadership, the Royal Navy proved its
supremacy over the French. His most famous engagement, at Cape Trafalgar, saved
Britain from threat of invasion by Napoleon, but it would be his last. Before the
battle on 21 October 1805, Nelson sent out the famous signal to his fleet
‘England expects that every man will do his duty’. He was killed by a French
sniper a few hours later while leading the attack on the combined French and
Spanish fleet. His body was preserved in brandy and transported back to England
where he was given a state funeral.

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6.         This group chooses the Kouzes and
Posner’s leadership Challenge Model as tools to determined and justifies what
are the chosen principle and leadership attributes to Horatio Nelson as a
leader of military organizations that carry out mission and engaged in battle
during hostile and stressful situation. Leader must know what approach to take
when formulating their leadership style and strategic plans. They would do well
to base their decisions to achieved its objectives and achievements. On the
writings of Kouzes and Posner in their seminal book titled, “The Leadership
Challenge” (2007). While this book was not written specifically for leaders
working in the realm of Napoleonic War Era, its leadership concepts are
particular well-suited to providing a foundational framework that such leaders
can build on that will ensure that the men they intend to help are actually
involved in the process of working towards achieving the winning and certain
military objectives and not just the unintentional victims of assistance that
actually does more harm than good. Kouzes and Posner (2007) have conducted
extensive research on what makes some leaders highly effective at what they do.
There are practices that called the “Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership”
(Kouzes & Posner, 2007, p. 14). These leadership practices have been
described as follows:


            a. Model the Way

            b. Inspire a Shared Vision

            c. Challenge the Process

            d. Enable Others to Act

            e. Encourage the Heart


7.         When an analysis of these five
leadership practices is overlaid onto the needs and dynamics at play in those
struggling with poverty in the developing world, it can be argued that leaders
who base their leadership style on Kouzes and Posner’s framework may be perfect
agents of change in the ongoing effort to winning the war. Kouzes and Posner
(2007) describe it this way: “A leader-constituent relationship that is
characterized by mutual fear and distrust will never, ever produce anything of
lasting value. A relationship characterized by mutual respect and confidence
will overcome the greatest adversities and leave a legacy of significance” (p.
240. A closer look at each of Kouzes and Posner’s (2007) Five Practices of
Exemplary Leadership may reveal many practical suggestions for leaders who face
the challenge of inspiring the transformational change that is vitally
important when trying help their subordinates move towards self-sufficiency and
improved feelings of self-worth.




8.         First tool in the James Kouzes and
Barry Z. Posner Leadership Model is about the leader should lead by example
through alignment of actions and values. Leader also has to clarify the values
and affirming the very clear shared ideas in their men. By doing this, the men
will have the clear picture on what is happening and what will happen in their
mind, so that they can prepare their mental and physical earlier. In
conjunction with that also, they might be already have the future plan in
assisting the leader to achieve leader’s goal. We can see this tool applied to
the Horatio Nelson in his leadership style which is he led his ship during the
Battle Of Trafalgar at the front line and he also be inside that ship named HMS
Victory. On mentally side, he led with his head through straight and careful
thinking. He did not use the classic strategy like enemy did where all the ship
must be in straight line but he did other strategy which is arrow shape or as
known as Nelson Touch (Nelson’s Way, Stephanie Jones
& Jonathan Gosling, 2005) strategy that divided by two columns. As a
result, the enemy had been split in three groups and totally lost their
formation. This bring the victory to the British fleet with no losses on ship
but the Franco-Spanish fleet lost twenty-two ships.




9.         Kouzes and Posner (2007) describe the
best leaders as those who see things in ways that are different from others.
They see how things are now, but envision a future filled with possibilities
about what could be to their subordinates. These leaders have a strong belief
that a better future is possible and have the ability to inspire others to join
them on the journey to making those possibilities into realities. According to
Warren G Bennis, “leadership is the capacity to translate vision into reality”.
Only leaders have constituents, it is imperative that leaders have the ability
to inspire a shared vision that can serve as a rallying cry to prompt the
workforce moving together towards their military objectives. In regard to this
concept, Kouzes and Posner (2007) say, to enlist people in a vision, leaders
must know their constituents and speak their language. People must believe that
leaders understand their needs and have their interests at heart. Horatio
Nelson has displayed a good example of visionary leader and he was able and
successfully managed to lead a varied team of his men in some difficult
situations. He managed to explore a building and managing a team. Nelson and
his ‘Band of Brothers’ is able to find out how to complete the task and
objectives. Horatio Nelson is also in the centre of his captains when
discussing a plan on the table and the men are leaning in to look at it. The
captains are all the ones that Nelson discussed his plans with in the two
briefings he had with them on 29th and 30th September, prior to the Battle of
Trafalgar. Through numerous informal conversations and dinners in Nelson’s
cabin, Nelson and his captains got to know each other well. They shared lessons
learned from past experiences, discussed the many possible ways the battles
could go and ultimately learned how each other thought. Clear orders and vision
is to be communicated in the effective way. Horatio nelson is telling his men
about  who is in charge but at the same
time he draw on the ideas and experience to his captains so that they can make
decisions without interference from the leader when come to the certain




10.       Challenge always gets misinterpreted,
because a lot of people think the leaders or commanders just being disagreeable
all of the time. It’s really about striving themselves to excellence. It’s
knowing that they only going to be great if they continue to search for new and
different ways to do things. The higher authorities want the next big thing and
only the best results. In the battle term, it called WIN or CONQUER. They
want commanders to delight them, not just satisfy them. The leaders or
commanders got to find continuous ways to make that happen. They have to search
outside the boundaries of the workforce, fleet, crew or men to make that happen
as well as not just depend on the limited sources within themselves. Anything
new is risky, so commanders have to have a spirit that doesn’t punish people
for taking risks and making mistakes, but treats them as learning process and
period. Leaders also have to search for opportunities to change the status quo.
They look for innovative ways to improve the workforce and the team. In doing
so, they experiment and take risks. And because leaders know that risk taking
involves mistakes and failures, they accept the inevitable disappointments as
learning opportunities.


11.       By referring to the Horatio Nelson
situation, in the Naval Intelligence context, another management challenge that
Nelson faced was he knowing what was going on, when letters took weeks or
months, when newspapers were full of rumor and were mostly propaganda
instruments, and especially when the enemy was at the sea. With none of the
modern technology of surveillance, it all depended on word of mouth and
relationships. For example, he had maintained a long relationship with the
British consul in Madrid, John Hunter, and his colleague James Duff in Cadiz.
The latter had known Nelson for 27 years, through war and peace. A Quaker
merchant in Barcelona, Edward Gayner, was also a close friend. They relayed a
constant stream of information to Nelson and felt that this was a key part of
doing their job. They would, of course, help another admirals, but Nelson held
a special place in their regard. The importance of gaining this intelligence
may be seen in his letters, in which he constantly asks for news and, when
receiving it, passes it around. Sometimes it was false, for reasons of
ignorance or deliberate misinformation. It was very hard to tell.

12.       Despite his efforts, in the first
breakout the enemy returned to port, but the second breakout in April 1805 was
more worrying and could have had even more dire consequences. Nelson had no
idea where they had gone. It took him a month to gather enough information to
give him the confidence to set off across the Atlantic to the West Indies,
their presumed destination. Nelson’s anxiety and tension mounted. But this was
no wild goose chase, he had carefully thought through every eventuality and
meticulously covered his ground, and rightly predicted the enemy’s return and
destination at Ferrol. He was snapping so closely at the heels of the French
the Villeneuve, the French admiral, was unable to fulfill Napoleon’s orders to
concentrate the fleets in the West Indies and he gave up and came back to port
ultimately to Cadiz.




13.       A culture gets built over time as
behaviors get repeated. If a culture in which people feel as if they’re working
collectively as a team created, it have to foster collaboration, rather than
creating one where impress upon people the importance of individual competition
internally, in which people are constantly at war with each other.

14.       The other thing about human behavior is
people will be more willing to experiment and search outside the organization
when they feel risk-taking is safe to do. This is sort of a contradiction and
I’ll take more risks when the people feel safe.

15.       That sense of safety is based on trust.
Trust is the single most important cultural attribute that needs to be present
for people to feel enabled to act and to feel like they can collaborate and
work together in order to achieve the common goals. Because I know that if you
have my back, if I need help, I can ask you. If you have information that will
help me, you’ll share it. If I am feeling to stretched and I don’t feel like I
have the competencies to do something, the organization will provide me with
training and development to get that, and won’t let me just hang out there on
my own.

16.       In the term or context of Horatio Nelson,
he as an admiral was charged to fulfill a strategic mission, but had a good
deal of autonomy on how to actually complete the task. He often controlled a
varied flotilla of ships scattered around a large area, with no way to
communicate once ships were out of sight of each other. Admirals needed to
trust their subordinates, and captains had to trust each other to deliver on
their promises. If a couple of ships sailed off to take on supplies, they could
be gone for weeks, while their fellow captains depended on them returning
successfully to a pre-arranged rendezvous. Yet along the way any ship might
encounter an enemy, be engaged in battle, win (or lose) prizes, or be required
to make significant policy decisions about future supplies, trading
arrangements, credit and so forth.

17.       For captain in a fleet, loyalty to the
cause and to each other was far more than a matter of personal motivation: it
was an absolutely crucial element in the operational capability of a fleet. If
this was true in the ceaseless tasks of blockading ports, harassing enemy
ships, policing trade and enforcing the terms of treaties with subject
governments, it was even more essential in battle. Horatio Nelson famous quotes
is “England expects every man to do his duty”.




18.       The last tool in the James Kouzes and
Barry Z. Posner Leadership Model is about encouraging the heart of your men. In
order to have a good leadership style, you must appreciate and recognize your
men excellence on doing something or celebrate the victories when they do the
thingsright. When something goes wrong you will take the responsibilities and
consider the problem as a learning process. This can be seen by a good example
from the Horatio Nelson which is he win the heart not from the officers on
upper deck only but also the seaman on the lower deck as well. This can be
proven by the note that had been found was dropped in the lower deck which
stated that ‘ Success attend Admiral Nelson! God bless Captain Miller! We are
happy and comfortable, and will shed every drop of blood in our veins so that
the name of the Theseus shall be
immortalized as high as the Captain’s.'(Nelson’s Way, Stepahnie Jones &
Jonathan Gosling, 2005)




19.       According to Nelson’s Way Book.
Inspiration is the action or power of stimulating the intellect or emotions in
others people through affection and effective communication. It is also being
enthused, with an inspiring idea, agent or influence. Being inspired is to be
outstanding and brilliant beyond the ordinary. Therefore, a leader have to be a
great inspiration to his men in order to make them be an effective follower so
that it will reduce the burden of the leader as well as achieving certain
objective. Meanwhile, Nelson was a great inspiration to his men, mostly because
he earned their trust, they wanted to follow him and they believed him also.
For example, when his seaman get sick or wounded he will visit them at the
hospital not even that but also give money to the nurses who take good care of
his men. Secondly, he recognize honour and merit by giving promotion to his
officers so that it will give them more responsibility and rights to a bigger
share of money. Besides that, when Nelson was wounded and brought down to the
doctor he refused to pull his rank and jump the queue on the other hand he said
to the nurse that he wanted to take his turn with his brave fellows. From the
above examples, we can conclude that Nelson had done or action as he supposes
to do in grabbing the believe of his men for them to follow his orders easily
without many argument exist hence automatically make himself as an inspiration
to others.




20.       “It was during this period that perhaps
my personal courage was more conspicuous than any other part of my life”. Horatio Nelson displayed a often took
a bold move to leave the line of battle and opportunistically attack larger
Spanish ships threatening to reunite with the rest of its fleet and use bridge
to onboard enemy ships. This heroic action became known in the Royal Navy as
‘Nelson’s Patent Bridge for Boarding First Rates’. He was ambitious for the
next success that the country needed. Nelson knew that every time he led from
the front he translated his leadership among his men. The risks he faced were
greater than his men since he was wearing a prominent uniform. Horatio Nelson
engaged in close combat and hand to hand himself. For all his courage, it is
certainly unconventional for such an Admiral to engage in a battle in a
proactive way. Leading the battle from the front is a very courageous and
heroic leadership. He fought with his men and bled with them and the attack as
a whole became legendary display by Nelson’s display of courage. Nelson becomes
a national hero as the courageous fighter taken a victory over the napoleon
fleet during the Battle of Nile on the very active phase of his career. Dare to
win approach that being displayed by Nelson has cornered on all the Napoleon’s
sides by his brilliant tactics. This act of courage and bravery has been
observed by his Commander In Chief, Admiral Sir John Jervis he was willing to
recognize merit on Nelson’s gallantry and courageous action.He was
injured more than once. Leading a landing at Tenerife, his right arm was hit
and had to be amputated at the shoulder. In another battle, his eye was damaged
by sand from sandbag nearby that was hit by a cannonball.  Also during the Battle of the Nile, bold
action caught the French by surprise. He was grazed on the forehead and
exclaimed ‘I am killed, remember me to my wife.’  At Trafalgar, where his bold strategy led to
the British overcoming a far superior force, he stayed on deck in full uniform in
order to motivate his sailors, and was picked off by a sniper. At his dying
moment, he able to pass his courage to keep his men motivated even though he
was unable to fight side by side with them again.





21.       Horatio Nelson
has a very passionate and devotion toward to join the navy and to sail the sea.
He joined the navy aged 12 in 1770, and experienced sailing in the West Indies,
the Northwest Passage when only 14 and in the North Sea. During his early years
in the Royal Navy, he is often spent the rest of the year cruising off the coast and escorting
merchantmen. The rest of the year he spent escorting convoys which during which
he continued to develop his navigation and ship handling skills. In early 1776
Nelson contracted malaria and
became seriously ill. He was discharged and returned to England aboard. Nelson
spent the six-month voyage recuperating and had almost recovered by the time he
arrived in Britain in September 1776. 
Even though he played a small part in the Royal navy, but he still insisted
to keep on developed his skills and promoted Captain in 1779 at the age of 20, his first command. He developed a reputation in the service
through his personal valour and firm grasp of tactics but suffered periods of
illness and unemployment after the end of the American War of Independence. The
outbreak of the French
Revolutionary Wars allowed Nelson to return to service as he always wanted
to be. This event shows that Nelson being expressively passionate toward his
duty and sail the sea. In the eyes of others, passion for work may inspire but
passion for the duty toward his dream envy others. There are several times that he was wounded in the battle such
as injured his right eyes and Nelson was hit
in the right arm during the battle of Santa Cruz. Passionately, Nelson
exclaimed that he would have given his other arm to have been present in
another war. The surgeons had been unable
to remove the central of his
amputated arm, which had caused considerable inflammation and poisoned.  However, Nelson rapidly began to recover and
still eager would happy to return to sea. Nelson’s passion for risk taking lost him the sight of an eye,
an arm and eventually his life but, together with his remarkable charismatic
and passionate character, he created a legend that inspires the Royal Navy to
this day. 




22.       For somebody to be a role model to the
others, he himself must adhere to the instructions or command from the higher
authority because it is the means of successfulness in a war or battle. If
something happen the leader will not hundred percent be the person to be
blamed. But what happened to the Nelson was he occasionally disregard orders
from his seniors as we can see during the Spanish Off Cape Vincent in 1797
meanwhile at the battle of Copenhagen in 1801 he ignored orders to withdraw by
giving the reasons that he putting his telescope to his blind eye and claiming
that he couldn’t see the signal clearly. Luckily for him, with this defiance he
managed to won both battles with victory.


23.       As a leader sometimes we make mistake
during our process to achieve our goals. We do not realize the consequences
beside the action we take. Since nobody aware about this during The Battle Of
Trafalgar, Admiral Nelson had worn his uniforms with all his medals blinking and
expose himself easily to the enemy. This action accidently leads to the killing
of Admiral Nelson in that battle when he had been shot by a sniper on the
enemy’s ship. In conjunction with that, English Naval had lost one of Britain’s
greatest naval commander they have ever had.



24.       Based on the Leadership Challenge Model,
by James Kouzes & Barry Z. Posner, 2005 we have come out with lesson learn
that should be inside an individual in order to be a good leader.

25.       Admiral
Horatio Nelson leadership style by the principles chosen was a combination of
several leadership styles. He was eager to led the team until he did not aware
that he actually in danger situation. By not realizing it, he was actually
exposed to the enemy for him to be an easy target. At last he has been shot by
the sniper in the Battle of Trafalgar, 1805. It shows that it is not
practicable to apply in the current era.

26.       Next
lesson learn that we could take is by Inspiring a Shared Vision with the men.
It is the most important part for us to have same picture or path with the men
in achieving the objective. It’s easy for them to forecast on what will happen
and what is happening, so that they can prepare
their mental and physical earlier. In conjunction with that also, they might be
already have the future plan in assisting the leader to achieve leader’s goal.
It is suitable for us in every organization to have a same vision with our
leader and it also will reduce the burden of the leader itself.


27.       Based
on Challenge the Process principle, before Nelson did something he gather
information as much as possible as he can by dealing with other parties such as
with the British consul in Madrid, John Hunter, and his
colleague James Duff in Cadiz
in ensuring the safety of the fleet. We call this as intelligent gathering and
it is relevant until now whereby for a leader to accomplish the mission they
need to gather the information as much as possible.



28.       He
was a transformational and inspirational or charismatic leader, a leader led by
examples; he continually trained and developed his troops. He even died leading
by example, by leading his ships to battle in Trafalgar. He lead with his head
(through straight and careful thinking), with his heart (through having the
well being of his followers in his heart), and his hand (touching others
positively). Nelson style of leadership led to success of his troops in several
battles fought. He regarded his followers as brothers, and led them as such.


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