4.         Nelson was a Britishnaval commander. Bornon 29 September 1758 in Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk, Horatio Nelson was the sixthof the 11 children of a clergyman. He joined the navy aged 12, on a shipcommanded by a maternal uncle.

He became a captain at 20. As a commander he wasknown for bold action, and the occasional disregard of orders from his seniors.At the Battle of the Nile in 1798, he successfully destroyed Napoleon’s fleetand thus his bid for a direct trade route to India. In 1801, Nelson waspromoted to vice-admiral.5.         Overthe period 1794 to 1805, under Nelson’s leadership, the Royal Navy proved itssupremacy over the French. His most famous engagement, at Cape Trafalgar, savedBritain from threat of invasion by Napoleon, but it would be his last.

Before thebattle on 21 October 1805, Nelson sent out the famous signal to his fleet’England expects that every man will do his duty’. He was killed by a Frenchsniper a few hours later while leading the attack on the combined French andSpanish fleet. His body was preserved in brandy and transported back to Englandwhere he was given a state funeral.CHOSENPRINCIPLE TO DESCRIBE THE LEADER6.         This group chooses the Kouzes andPosner’s leadership Challenge Model as tools to determined and justifies whatare the chosen principle and leadership attributes to Horatio Nelson as aleader of military organizations that carry out mission and engaged in battleduring hostile and stressful situation. Leader must know what approach to takewhen formulating their leadership style and strategic plans. They would do wellto base their decisions to achieved its objectives and achievements.

On thewritings of Kouzes and Posner in their seminal book titled, “The LeadershipChallenge” (2007). While this book was not written specifically for leadersworking in the realm of Napoleonic War Era, its leadership concepts areparticular well-suited to providing a foundational framework that such leaderscan build on that will ensure that the men they intend to help are actuallyinvolved in the process of working towards achieving the winning and certainmilitary objectives and not just the unintentional victims of assistance thatactually does more harm than good. Kouzes and Posner (2007) have conductedextensive research on what makes some leaders highly effective at what they do.There are practices that called the “Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership”(Kouzes & Posner, 2007, p.

14). These leadership practices have beendescribed as follows:              a. Model the Way             b.

Inspire a Shared Vision             c. Challenge the Process             d. Enable Others to Act             e. Encourage the Heart  7.

         When an analysis of these fiveleadership practices is overlaid onto the needs and dynamics at play in thosestruggling with poverty in the developing world, it can be argued that leaderswho base their leadership style on Kouzes and Posner’s framework may be perfectagents of change in the ongoing effort to winning the war. Kouzes and Posner(2007) describe it this way: “A leader-constituent relationship that ischaracterized by mutual fear and distrust will never, ever produce anything oflasting value. A relationship characterized by mutual respect and confidencewill overcome the greatest adversities and leave a legacy of significance” (p.

240. A closer look at each of Kouzes and Posner’s (2007) Five Practices ofExemplary Leadership may reveal many practical suggestions for leaders who facethe challenge of inspiring the transformational change that is vitallyimportant when trying help their subordinates move towards self-sufficiency andimproved feelings of self-worth. MODEL THE WAY 8.

         First tool in the James Kouzes andBarry Z. Posner Leadership Model is about the leader should lead by examplethrough alignment of actions and values. Leader also has to clarify the valuesand affirming the very clear shared ideas in their men. By doing this, the menwill have the clear picture on what is happening and what will happen in theirmind, so that they can prepare their mental and physical earlier. Inconjunction with that also, they might be already have the future plan inassisting the leader to achieve leader’s goal.

We can see this tool applied tothe Horatio Nelson in his leadership style which is he led his ship during theBattle Of Trafalgar at the front line and he also be inside that ship named HMSVictory. On mentally side, he led with his head through straight and carefulthinking. He did not use the classic strategy like enemy did where all the shipmust be in straight line but he did other strategy which is arrow shape or asknown as Nelson Touch (Nelson’s Way, Stephanie Jones& Jonathan Gosling, 2005) strategy that divided by two columns.

As aresult, the enemy had been split in three groups and totally lost theirformation. This bring the victory to the British fleet with no losses on shipbut the Franco-Spanish fleet lost twenty-two ships. INSPIRE A SHARED VISION 9.

         Kouzes and Posner (2007) describe thebest leaders as those who see things in ways that are different from others.They see how things are now, but envision a future filled with possibilitiesabout what could be to their subordinates. These leaders have a strong beliefthat a better future is possible and have the ability to inspire others to jointhem on the journey to making those possibilities into realities. According toWarren G Bennis, “leadership is the capacity to translate vision into reality”.Only leaders have constituents, it is imperative that leaders have the abilityto inspire a shared vision that can serve as a rallying cry to prompt theworkforce moving together towards their military objectives. In regard to thisconcept, Kouzes and Posner (2007) say, to enlist people in a vision, leadersmust know their constituents and speak their language. People must believe thatleaders understand their needs and have their interests at heart.

HoratioNelson has displayed a good example of visionary leader and he was able andsuccessfully managed to lead a varied team of his men in some difficultsituations. He managed to explore a building and managing a team. Nelson andhis ‘Band of Brothers’ is able to find out how to complete the task andobjectives. Horatio Nelson is also in the centre of his captains whendiscussing a plan on the table and the men are leaning in to look at it.

Thecaptains are all the ones that Nelson discussed his plans with in the twobriefings he had with them on 29th and 30th September, prior to the Battle ofTrafalgar. Through numerous informal conversations and dinners in Nelson’scabin, Nelson and his captains got to know each other well. They shared lessonslearned from past experiences, discussed the many possible ways the battlescould go and ultimately learned how each other thought.

Clear orders and visionis to be communicated in the effective way. Horatio nelson is telling his menabout  who is in charge but at the sametime he draw on the ideas and experience to his captains so that they can makedecisions without interference from the leader when come to the certainsituations.  CHALLENGING THE PROCESS 10.       Challenge always gets misinterpreted,because a lot of people think the leaders or commanders just being disagreeableall of the time. It’s really about striving themselves to excellence.

It’sknowing that they only going to be great if they continue to search for new anddifferent ways to do things. The higher authorities want the next big thing andonly the best results. In the battle term, it called WIN or CONQUER.

Theywant commanders to delight them, not just satisfy them. The leaders orcommanders got to find continuous ways to make that happen. They have to searchoutside the boundaries of the workforce, fleet, crew or men to make that happenas well as not just depend on the limited sources within themselves.

Anythingnew is risky, so commanders have to have a spirit that doesn’t punish peoplefor taking risks and making mistakes, but treats them as learning process andperiod. Leaders also have to search for opportunities to change the status quo.They look for innovative ways to improve the workforce and the team. In doingso, they experiment and take risks. And because leaders know that risk takinginvolves mistakes and failures, they accept the inevitable disappointments aslearning opportunities.

 11.       By referring to the Horatio Nelsonsituation, in the Naval Intelligence context, another management challenge thatNelson faced was he knowing what was going on, when letters took weeks ormonths, when newspapers were full of rumor and were mostly propagandainstruments, and especially when the enemy was at the sea. With none of themodern technology of surveillance, it all depended on word of mouth andrelationships. For example, he had maintained a long relationship with theBritish consul in Madrid, John Hunter, and his colleague James Duff in Cadiz.The latter had known Nelson for 27 years, through war and peace. A Quakermerchant in Barcelona, Edward Gayner, was also a close friend. They relayed aconstant stream of information to Nelson and felt that this was a key part ofdoing their job.

They would, of course, help another admirals, but Nelson helda special place in their regard. The importance of gaining this intelligencemay be seen in his letters, in which he constantly asks for news and, whenreceiving it, passes it around. Sometimes it was false, for reasons ofignorance or deliberate misinformation. It was very hard to tell. 12.

       Despite his efforts, in the firstbreakout the enemy returned to port, but the second breakout in April 1805 wasmore worrying and could have had even more dire consequences. Nelson had noidea where they had gone. It took him a month to gather enough information togive him the confidence to set off across the Atlantic to the West Indies,their presumed destination. Nelson’s anxiety and tension mounted.

But this wasno wild goose chase, he had carefully thought through every eventuality andmeticulously covered his ground, and rightly predicted the enemy’s return anddestination at Ferrol. He was snapping so closely at the heels of the Frenchthe Villeneuve, the French admiral, was unable to fulfill Napoleon’s orders toconcentrate the fleets in the West Indies and he gave up and came back to portultimately to Cadiz. ENABLING OTHERS TO ACT 13.       A culture gets built over time asbehaviors get repeated. If a culture in which people feel as if they’re workingcollectively as a team created, it have to foster collaboration, rather thancreating one where impress upon people the importance of individual competitioninternally, in which people are constantly at war with each other.14.       The other thing about human behavior ispeople will be more willing to experiment and search outside the organizationwhen they feel risk-taking is safe to do.

This is sort of a contradiction andI’ll take more risks when the people feel safe.15.       That sense of safety is based on trust.Trust is the single most important cultural attribute that needs to be presentfor people to feel enabled to act and to feel like they can collaborate andwork together in order to achieve the common goals.

Because I know that if youhave my back, if I need help, I can ask you. If you have information that willhelp me, you’ll share it. If I am feeling to stretched and I don’t feel like Ihave the competencies to do something, the organization will provide me withtraining and development to get that, and won’t let me just hang out there onmy own.16.

       In the term or context of Horatio Nelson,he as an admiral was charged to fulfill a strategic mission, but had a gooddeal of autonomy on how to actually complete the task. He often controlled avaried flotilla of ships scattered around a large area, with no way tocommunicate once ships were out of sight of each other. Admirals needed totrust their subordinates, and captains had to trust each other to deliver ontheir promises. If a couple of ships sailed off to take on supplies, they couldbe gone for weeks, while their fellow captains depended on them returningsuccessfully to a pre-arranged rendezvous. Yet along the way any ship mightencounter an enemy, be engaged in battle, win (or lose) prizes, or be requiredto make significant policy decisions about future supplies, tradingarrangements, credit and so forth.17.

       For captain in a fleet, loyalty to thecause and to each other was far more than a matter of personal motivation: itwas an absolutely crucial element in the operational capability of a fleet. Ifthis was true in the ceaseless tasks of blockading ports, harassing enemyships, policing trade and enforcing the terms of treaties with subjectgovernments, it was even more essential in battle. Horatio Nelson famous quotesis “England expects every man to do his duty”.  ENCOURAGE THE HEART18.       The last tool in the James Kouzes andBarry Z. Posner Leadership Model is about encouraging the heart of your men.

Inorder to have a good leadership style, you must appreciate and recognize yourmen excellence on doing something or celebrate the victories when they do thethingsright. When something goes wrong you will take the responsibilities andconsider the problem as a learning process. This can be seen by a good examplefrom the Horatio Nelson which is he win the heart not from the officers onupper deck only but also the seaman on the lower deck as well. This can beproven by the note that had been found was dropped in the lower deck whichstated that ‘ Success attend Admiral Nelson! God bless Captain Miller! We arehappy and comfortable, and will shed every drop of blood in our veins so thatthe name of the Theseus shall beimmortalized as high as the Captain’s.'(Nelson’s Way, Stepahnie Jones Gosling, 2005) POSITIVE TRAITSINSPIRATION19.

       According to Nelson’s Way Book.Inspiration is the action or power of stimulating the intellect or emotions inothers people through affection and effective communication. It is also beingenthused, with an inspiring idea, agent or influence. Being inspired is to beoutstanding and brilliant beyond the ordinary. Therefore, a leader have to be agreat inspiration to his men in order to make them be an effective follower sothat it will reduce the burden of the leader as well as achieving certainobjective. Meanwhile, Nelson was a great inspiration to his men, mostly becausehe earned their trust, they wanted to follow him and they believed him also.

For example, when his seaman get sick or wounded he will visit them at thehospital not even that but also give money to the nurses who take good care ofhis men. Secondly, he recognize honour and merit by giving promotion to hisofficers so that it will give them more responsibility and rights to a biggershare of money. Besides that, when Nelson was wounded and brought down to thedoctor he refused to pull his rank and jump the queue on the other hand he saidto the nurse that he wanted to take his turn with his brave fellows. From theabove examples, we can conclude that Nelson had done or action as he supposesto do in grabbing the believe of his men for them to follow his orders easilywithout many argument exist hence automatically make himself as an inspirationto others. COURAGE 20.       “It was during this period that perhapsmy personal courage was more conspicuous than any other part of my life”. Horatio Nelson displayed a often tooka bold move to leave the line of battle and opportunistically attack largerSpanish ships threatening to reunite with the rest of its fleet and use bridgeto onboard enemy ships.

This heroic action became known in the Royal Navy as’Nelson’s Patent Bridge for Boarding First Rates’. He was ambitious for thenext success that the country needed. Nelson knew that every time he led fromthe front he translated his leadership among his men. The risks he faced weregreater than his men since he was wearing a prominent uniform. Horatio Nelsonengaged in close combat and hand to hand himself. For all his courage, it iscertainly unconventional for such an Admiral to engage in a battle in aproactive way. Leading the battle from the front is a very courageous andheroic leadership.

He fought with his men and bled with them and the attack asa whole became legendary display by Nelson’s display of courage. Nelson becomesa national hero as the courageous fighter taken a victory over the napoleonfleet during the Battle of Nile on the very active phase of his career. Dare towin approach that being displayed by Nelson has cornered on all the Napoleon’ssides by his brilliant tactics. This act of courage and bravery has beenobserved by his Commander In Chief, Admiral Sir John Jervis he was willing torecognize merit on Nelson’s gallantry and courageous action.He wasinjured more than once. Leading a landing at Tenerife, his right arm was hitand had to be amputated at the shoulder.

In another battle, his eye was damagedby sand from sandbag nearby that was hit by a cannonball.  Also during the Battle of the Nile, boldaction caught the French by surprise. He was grazed on the forehead andexclaimed ‘I am killed, remember me to my wife.’  At Trafalgar, where his bold strategy led tothe British overcoming a far superior force, he stayed on deck in full uniform inorder to motivate his sailors, and was picked off by a sniper.

At his dyingmoment, he able to pass his courage to keep his men motivated even though hewas unable to fight side by side with them again.  PASSION 21.       Horatio Nelsonhas a very passionate and devotion toward to join the navy and to sail the sea.He joined the navy aged 12 in 1770, and experienced sailing in the West Indies,the Northwest Passage when only 14 and in the North Sea. During his early yearsin the Royal Navy, he is often spent the rest of the year cruising off the coast and escortingmerchantmen.

The rest of the year he spent escorting convoys which during whichhe continued to develop his navigation and ship handling skills. In early 1776Nelson contracted malaria andbecame seriously ill. He was discharged and returned to England aboard. Nelsonspent the six-month voyage recuperating and had almost recovered by the time hearrived in Britain in September 1776. Even though he played a small part in the Royal navy, but he still insistedto keep on developed his skills and promoted Captain in 1779 at the age of 20, his first command. He developed a reputation in the servicethrough his personal valour and firm grasp of tactics but suffered periods ofillness and unemployment after the end of the American War of Independence. Theoutbreak of the FrenchRevolutionary Wars allowed Nelson to return to service as he always wantedto be. This event shows that Nelson being expressively passionate toward hisduty and sail the sea.

In the eyes of others, passion for work may inspire butpassion for the duty toward his dream envy others. There are several times that he was wounded in the battle suchas injured his right eyes and Nelson was hitin the right arm during the battle of Santa Cruz. Passionately, Nelsonexclaimed that he would have given his other arm to have been present inanother war. The surgeons had been unableto remove the central of hisamputated arm, which had caused considerable inflammation and poisoned.  However, Nelson rapidly began to recover andstill eager would happy to return to sea. Nelson’s passion for risk taking lost him the sight of an eye,an arm and eventually his life but, together with his remarkable charismaticand passionate character, he created a legend that inspires the Royal Navy tothis day.  NEGATIVE TRAITSDISOBEY ORDERS22.

       For somebody to be a role model to theothers, he himself must adhere to the instructions or command from the higherauthority because it is the means of successfulness in a war or battle. Ifsomething happen the leader will not hundred percent be the person to beblamed. But what happened to the Nelson was he occasionally disregard ordersfrom his seniors as we can see during the Spanish Off Cape Vincent in 1797meanwhile at the battle of Copenhagen in 1801 he ignored orders to withdraw bygiving the reasons that he putting his telescope to his blind eye and claimingthat he couldn’t see the signal clearly. Luckily for him, with this defiance hemanaged to won both battles with victory.RECKLESS23.

       As a leader sometimes we make mistakeduring our process to achieve our goals. We do not realize the consequencesbeside the action we take. Since nobody aware about this during The Battle OfTrafalgar, Admiral Nelson had worn his uniforms with all his medals blinking andexpose himself easily to the enemy. This action accidently leads to the killingof Admiral Nelson in that battle when he had been shot by a sniper on theenemy’s ship. In conjunction with that, English Naval had lost one of Britain’sgreatest naval commander they have ever had. LESSON LEARNT IN RELATION TO THE PRINCIPLES CHOSEN24.

       Based on the Leadership Challenge Model,by James Kouzes & Barry Z. Posner, 2005 we have come out with lesson learnthat should be inside an individual in order to be a good leader. 25.       AdmiralHoratio Nelson leadership style by the principles chosen was a combination ofseveral leadership styles.

He was eager to led the team until he did not awarethat he actually in danger situation. By not realizing it, he was actuallyexposed to the enemy for him to be an easy target. At last he has been shot bythe sniper in the Battle of Trafalgar, 1805. It shows that it is notpracticable to apply in the current era.26.       Nextlesson learn that we could take is by Inspiring a Shared Vision with the men.It is the most important part for us to have same picture or path with the menin achieving the objective.

It’s easy for them to forecast on what will happenand what is happening, so that they can preparetheir mental and physical earlier. In conjunction with that also, they might bealready have the future plan in assisting the leader to achieve leader’s goal.It is suitable for us in every organization to have a same vision with ourleader and it also will reduce the burden of the leader itself.

 27.       Basedon Challenge the Process principle, before Nelson did something he gatherinformation as much as possible as he can by dealing with other parties such aswith the British consul in Madrid, John Hunter, and hiscolleague James Duff in Cadizin ensuring the safety of the fleet. We call this as intelligent gathering andit is relevant until now whereby for a leader to accomplish the mission theyneed to gather the information as much as possible. CONCLUSION28.       Hewas a transformational and inspirational or charismatic leader, a leader led byexamples; he continually trained and developed his troops. He even died leadingby example, by leading his ships to battle in Trafalgar. He lead with his head(through straight and careful thinking), with his heart (through having thewell being of his followers in his heart), and his hand (touching otherspositively).

Nelson style of leadership led to success of his troops in severalbattles fought. He regarded his followers as brothers, and led them as such.

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