4.1 Introduction

          This
chapter describes HTTP-based flooding DDoS attacks and how they can harm the
SDN-based environment, also describes SD-Anti-DDoS method and how it can
protect the SDN-based environment. Another section in this chapter describes
the proposed function that added to SD-Anti-DDoS method.

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4.2 HTTP-based flooding DDoS attacks

HTTP-based DDoS attack is one of the serious DDoS attacks
that based on HTTP protocol. This type of attack is difficult to fix, this
because it’s packets looks like legal packets, it attacks its target by sending
HTTP requests that pass throw defense mechanisms as legal packets. It has many
types that can be classified into:

4.2.1
Session flooding attack

In this attack, the attacker sends many session request packet
(usually more than 10 requests per second) to its target that classified as
normal packet, then the target starts processing all these requests until
become unable to process legal requests and lead to flooding26,
29.

4.2.2
Request flooding attacks

          In this attack, the attacker sends
session packets that contains higher number of requests than the legal session
packets that sent by normal users, this request consume the target server CPU
and memory power and make it unable to process the legal requests26,
29.

4.2.3
Asymmetric attacks

In this attack, the attacker sends session packets contains
high workload requests, this requests make the target server busy with this
workload and becomes unable to process another requests26,
29.

4.2.4
Slow request/response attack

In
this attack, the attacker sends not completed requests slowly, this requests
makes it target server waiting for the rest of the request. Some of the famous
attacks in this type of attack are Slowloris attack (also called slow headers
attack), HTTP fragmentation attack, slow post attack (also called slow request
bodies or R-U-Dead-Yet) attack, and slow reading attack (also called slow
response attack) 26,
29.

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