3rdAssignment on Teaching of General Science (GSC201)Assignment 3(Fall, 2017)Total Marks =20(Lectures = 29to 37)Instructions1.     Lateassignments will not be accepted.2.     If the file iscorrupt or problematic, it will be marked zero.3.

     Plagiarismwill never be tolerated. Plagiarism occurs when a student uses work done by someoneelse as if it was his or her own; however, taking the ideas from differentsources and expressing them in your own words will be encouraged.4.     Students,who will submit assignments of other students, will be awarded zero mark. Theywill be dropped from this course.5.     Noassignment will be accepted via e-mail.

6.     The solutionfile should be in Word document format; the font color should be preferablyblack and font size should be 12, Times New Roman.7.     The marginshould be 1.

5 from left, 1 on right, top and bottom. 8.     The linespacing should be 2 throughout the assignment. The heading should be Times NewRoman, Black, and Font Size 14.  SecondHeading should be Times New Roman, Black, and Font Size 12.9.

     Five marks will be deducted for the incorrectformat.10.  Please cite thereferences where you have taken the material in making your assignment. FollowAmerican Psychological Association (APA) 6th manual to givereferences. Numbers will be deducted whether you will give reference inincorrect style or reference will not be given.Question No.

1Define scaffolding. Explain how scaffolding can be used to teachgeneral science at elementary level. (2 + 8)Definitionand TheoryIn education, the term scaffolding refers to a processin which teachers demonstrate to solve a problem, and then move back, providingsupport as required. Jerome Bruner,psychologist and instructional designer used the term ‘scaffolding’,for the first time back in the 1960s. It says, when students are supported whenneeded while learning something new, they get better chance to use thatknowledge independently. Bruner recommends three approaches of representationduring teaching, actions, pictures, and language.GeneralProcessFirst, a teacher begins to teach at thelevel the students can understand, and then she builds on the concepts. She showsthe problem and thinks aloud as she goes to solve it.

In the process, she showshow solution comes by combining actions, pictures, and language. Then she doesthe following: Teacher repeats this process two more times, asking students questions along the way. Every answer whether right or wrong, gets a positive response from her, to encourage students’ participation.

Students are asked to reply the question every time it is repeated. Correction is given as needed and reinforced positively. When understanding is achieved, students join the teacher in solving a new problem.

Understanding is checked while students solve problems. When more instruction is needed, more modeling is given. When students demonstrate knowledge, she steps away, and let students work independently, offering support as required.Scaffoldingis breaking up of learning into portions and then giving a tool with each portion.For example, when scaffolding reading, one might preview text, discuss keyvocabulary, and then read and discuss as one go.

With differentiation, onemight give a child a different piece of text to read, or shorten the text or changeit, or change the writing assignment.For those students who are struggling, onemay differentiate by modifying an assignment and/or by making accommodations(for example, choosing more available text and/or assign an alternativeproject).Useof Scaffolding to teach Science:1. Display and TellWe learn better by seeing something ratherthan hearing it.  Modeling for learnersis a cornerstone of scaffolding. Have you ever interrupted someone with “Justshow me!” while they were in the middle of explaining how to do something?Every chance one has demonstrated to students what exactly they are expected todo.·        Do the fishbowl activity, in the activity a smallgroup in the middle is circled by the rest of the class; the group in themiddle, fishbowl, engages in activity, modeling how to do for the larger group.

·        Always show students the outcome beforethey do it. If a teacher assigns an inquiry-based science project, a modelshould be presented with a criteria chart. Teacher can guide students throughouteach step of the process.

·        Use of thinkalouds, which will allow teacher to model thought process asshe read a text, solve problem, or design project. Children’s cognitiveabilities are in development stage, so chances for them to see developed,critical thinking are important.2. Share of Prior Knowledgestudents can be asked to share their experiences,and ideas about the concept of study and let them relate to their own lives.Sometimes offer hints and suggestions is helpful, but once they get that, theywill grasp the concept as their own.Beginning the learning in the class from theprior knowledge of students and using this as a framework for upcoming lessonsis a scaffolding technique and many agree it’s good teaching.3. Give time to talkLearners need time to process new concepts andinformation.

They need time to verbally make sense of their learning with the groupof learners who are busy in the same experience. Structured discussions workbest with children regardless of their maturation level. Include some structuredtalking time throughout the lesson as a crucial strategy on regular basis.4. Use Visual AidsGraphic organizers, pictures, and charts canall serve as scaffolding tools.

Graphic organizers are very specific in thatthey help kids visually represent their ideas, organize information, and graspconcepts such as sequencing and cause and effect.A graphic organizer shouldn’t be The Productbut rather a scaffolding tool that helps guide and shape the students’thinking. Some students can dive right into a discussion, or writing an essay,or synthesizing several different hypotheses, without using a graphic organizerof some sort, but many of our students benefit from using one with a difficultreading or challenging new information. Think of graphic organizers as trainingwheels—they are temporary and meant to be removed.5. Pause, AskQuestions, Review A wayto check students’ understanding when they read a portion of difficult text ornew content. A new idea from reading is shared, then pause, providing thinktime, then ask a question, pause again.

Questions should be designed ahead oftime, should be specific, guiding, and open-ended. Keep learners busy as activelisteners by asking someone what was just discussed, discovered or questioned.If they couldn’t reply the questions, give them opportunity to discuss inpairs.As there are diverse learners in classrooms,it is necessary for teachers to learn and experiment new scaffoldingstrategies.

Scaffolding a lesson may take longer to teach, but the result is ofgreater quality and experience more rewarding. QuestionNo. 2Selecta topic of your choice from 8th class general science book andprepare a lesson plan on that topic. (2 + 8)Answer:Topic: Invention of light bulb andtelephoneGrade: 8Periods: 2LessonObjectives:Students will begin to describe howtechnology altered in 20th century.Students will be able to explain whatThomas Edison and Alexander Graham Bell invented.

How these inventions changed the waypeople lived.KeyPoints: •       Thomas Edison invented light bulb.•       Thomas Edison changed the way people work.•       Thomas’s inventions made it possible forall technologies such as T.V.s, radios, computers, etc.

•       Alexander Graham Bell inventedtelephone.•       Graham Bell changed the way peoplecommunicate. No longer people need to send telegraphs or mail, they now cancall and talk to people instantly. ImportantQuestion: How inventions of telephone and light bulb change the way people live? Vocabulary: light bulb, Thomas Edison,Alexander Graham Bell, invention, telephoneMaterials:LCDWriting PromptInvention Project (in class)Graphic OrganizerInvention Project (Homework)Opening(10 minutes): Teacher:•       At the beginning of the lesson, instructorwill put the starter on the board, “What is the most important invention of alltime?”•       She will ask the students to discuss thestarter with groups.•       She will ask students to share theirstarter.•       She will explain the objectives for the lesson.

 By the end of this lesson, students explainwhat Thomas Edison, and Alexander Graham Bell invented, and how theseinventions change people’s life.Students:•       Students will write their own starter.•       They will share ideas with their peers.•     They will share their ideas with the whole class.Introductionof the Material (20 minutes):Teacher:•       She will tell the students that theywill do a gallery walk to know about two inventors, Thomas Edison, and GrahamBell.

•       She will explain the work of gallerywalk.•       She will tell students that each tablewill have one of the two inventors that they will learn today.•       She will explain that when Students aredone with the gallery walk they will go to the next station.•        She will tell them that part of thegallery walk has a video that will be shown when the two stations are completed.•       She will tell them that a graphicorganizer will be filled during the walk.•       She will check them as they finish thegallery walk.Students:•       Students will fill the graphic organizerduring their walk.•       They will finish the gallery walkquietly and patiently.

•       Students will ask the questions from theteacher if any arise.•       They will complete the writing prompt. GuidedPractice (15 minutes):Teacher:•       Teacher will show a brief PowerPoint presentationon Edison and Graham Bell.•       She will emphasize that these inventorschanged people’s life in the beginning of 20th century and how way we live now.•       She will highlight that G. Bell madecommunication easier.

People don’t send telegraphs and mail to connect withsomeone. They now use telephone which saves time, and revolutionized the way ofcommunication.•        Teacherwill define two different methods to ask the students which way is quicker and easier.

She will use a letter and ask the class pass until it reach the last person inthe class. Then, she will pretend that he is calling the class, and suddenlytell class the same message. She will then ask them to analyze how telephone hasbeen a useful invention.•       She will emphasize that T. Edison inventedthe practical light bulb with other important inventions including 1,093patents.

Thomas got a significant influence on research. Light bulbs changed theway we work. No longer people restricted to daytime for work and can work atnight.•       Teacher will ask students fill anotherpart of organizer during Power Point presentation.

Students:•       Students will listen to the PowerPoint.•       Fill out the organizer.•       Ask questions about the Presentation. IndependentPractice 35 minutes:Teacher:•       Teacher will inform the students about  a two-day project involving inventing a newmachine to make life easier for human.•       That first they have to fill out agraphic organizer to ask them main questions about the invention.•      She will give out the graphicorganizer.•       She will tell them that they will writeabout their invention and next day they will do sketching and do the finalpiece of the invention.•       She will spend a sufficient timebrainstorming as class inventions.

•       She will emphasize that their inventionshould be an attempt to serve mankind.•       She will ask students questions if any.•       She will help the passive students tocreate their own invention.She will explain that after they finishto complete their invention project, they will work on following writing prompt.FormativeAssessment:Teacher will provide students thewriting prompt to assess their grasp of knowledge.How Thomas Edison and Alexander changedthe world we live in today? What the world could look like today ifthese inventions were never made? Do they think that the world is abetter place or not, because of these inventions? Explain.Students:•       Students will fill a graphicorganizer for their inventions.•        Those having difficulty will work with teacherto complete the organizer.

 Closingof 10 minutes:Teacher:•       Teacher will ask the students to read ordescribe their writing in their writing prompts.•       She will tell the students that they willcontinue inventing their project in the next lesson.•       She will introduce that project.

•       Remind them of their homework – theirinventor projects.•       Ask them any last minute questions. Student:•       Students will answer the given questions.•       They will ask any last moment questions. Homework:Science project on the technical innovations of the 20th century.

Assessment:Teacher will assess their writing prompts to know whether the students graspedhow Graham Bell and Edison changed people’s life. 

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