3rd
Assignment on Teaching of General Science (GSC201)

Assignment 3
(Fall, 2017)

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Total Marks =
20

(Lectures = 29
to 37)

Instructions

1.     
Late
assignments will not be accepted.

2.     
If the file is
corrupt or problematic, it will be marked zero.

3.     
Plagiarism
will never be tolerated. Plagiarism occurs when a student uses work done by someone
else as if it was his or her own; however, taking the ideas from different
sources and expressing them in your own words will be encouraged.

4.     
Students,
who will submit assignments of other students, will be awarded zero mark. They
will be dropped from this course.

5.     
No
assignment will be accepted via e-mail.

6.     
The solution
file should be in Word document format; the font color should be preferably
black and font size should be 12, Times New Roman.

7.     
The margin
should be 1.5 from left, 1 on right, top and bottom.

8.     
The line
spacing should be 2 throughout the assignment. The heading should be Times New
Roman, Black, and Font Size 14.  Second
Heading should be Times New Roman, Black, and Font Size 12.

9.     
Five marks will be deducted for the incorrect
format.

10.  Please cite the
references where you have taken the material in making your assignment. Follow
American Psychological Association (APA) 6th manual to give
references. Numbers will be deducted whether you will give reference in
incorrect style or reference will not be given.

Question No. 1

Define scaffolding. Explain how scaffolding can be used to teach
general science at elementary level. (2 + 8)

Definition
and Theory

In education, the term scaffolding refers to a process
in which teachers demonstrate to solve a problem, and then move back, providing
support as required. Jerome Bruner,
psychologist and instructional designer used the term ‘scaffolding’,
for the first time back in the 1960s. It says, when students are supported when
needed while learning something new, they get better chance to use that
knowledge independently. Bruner recommends three approaches of representation
during teaching, actions, pictures, and language.

General
Process

First, a teacher begins to teach at the
level the students can understand, and then she builds on the concepts. She shows
the problem and thinks aloud as she goes to solve it. In the process, she shows
how solution comes by combining actions, pictures, and language. Then she does
the following:

Teacher
repeats this process two more times, asking students questions along the
way.
Every
answer whether right or wrong, gets a positive response from her, to
encourage students’ participation.
Students
are asked to reply the question every time it is repeated.
Correction
is given as needed and reinforced positively.
When
understanding is achieved, students join the teacher in solving a new
problem.
Understanding
is checked while students solve problems. When more instruction is needed,
more modeling is given.
When
students demonstrate knowledge, she steps away, and let students work
independently, offering support as required.

Scaffolding
is breaking up of learning into portions and then giving a tool with each portion.
For example, when scaffolding reading, one might preview text, discuss key
vocabulary, and then read and discuss as one go. With differentiation, one
might give a child a different piece of text to read, or shorten the text or change
it, or change the writing assignment.

For those students who are struggling, one
may differentiate by modifying an assignment and/or by making accommodations
(for example, choosing more available text and/or assign an alternative
project).

Use
of Scaffolding to teach Science:

1. Display and Tell

We learn better by seeing something rather
than hearing it.  Modeling for learners
is a cornerstone of scaffolding. Have you ever interrupted someone with “Just
show me!” while they were in the middle of explaining how to do something?
Every chance one has demonstrated to students what exactly they are expected to
do.

·        
Do the fishbowl activity, in the activity a small
group in the middle is circled by the rest of the class; the group in the
middle, fishbowl, engages in activity, modeling how to do for the larger group.

·        
Always show students the outcome before
they do it. If a teacher assigns an inquiry-based science project, a model
should be presented with a criteria chart. Teacher can guide students throughout
each step of the process.

·        
Use of think
alouds, which will allow teacher to model thought process as
she read a text, solve problem, or design project. Children’s cognitive
abilities are in development stage, so chances for them to see developed,
critical thinking are important.

2. Share of Prior Knowledge

students can be asked to share their experiences,
and ideas about the concept of study and let them relate to their own lives.
Sometimes offer hints and suggestions is helpful, but once they get that, they
will grasp the concept as their own.

Beginning the learning in the class from the
prior knowledge of students and using this as a framework for upcoming lessons
is a scaffolding technique and many agree it’s good teaching.

3. Give time to talk

Learners need time to process new concepts and
information. They need time to verbally make sense of their learning with the group
of learners who are busy in the same experience. Structured discussions work
best with children regardless of their maturation level. Include some structured
talking time throughout the lesson as a crucial strategy on regular basis.

4. Use Visual Aids

Graphic organizers, pictures, and charts can
all serve as scaffolding tools. Graphic organizers are very specific in that
they help kids visually represent their ideas, organize information, and grasp
concepts such as sequencing and cause and effect.

A graphic organizer shouldn’t be The Product
but rather a scaffolding tool that helps guide and shape the students’
thinking. Some students can dive right into a discussion, or writing an essay,
or synthesizing several different hypotheses, without using a graphic organizer
of some sort, but many of our students benefit from using one with a difficult
reading or challenging new information. Think of graphic organizers as training
wheels—they are temporary and meant to be removed.

5. Pause, Ask
Questions, Review

 A way
to check students’ understanding when they read a portion of difficult text or
new content. A new idea from reading is shared, then pause, providing think
time, then ask a question, pause again. Questions should be designed ahead of
time, should be specific, guiding, and open-ended. Keep learners busy as active
listeners by asking someone what was just discussed, discovered or questioned.
If they couldn’t reply the questions, give them opportunity to discuss in
pairs.

As there are diverse learners in classrooms,
it is necessary for teachers to learn and experiment new scaffolding
strategies. Scaffolding a lesson may take longer to teach, but the result is of
greater quality and experience more rewarding.

 

Question
No. 2

Select
a topic of your choice from 8th class general science book and
prepare a lesson plan on that topic. (2 + 8)

Answer:

Topic: Invention of light bulb and
telephone

Grade: 8

Periods: 2

Lesson
Objectives:

Students will begin to describe how
technology altered in 20th century.

Students will be able to explain what
Thomas Edison and Alexander Graham Bell invented.

How these inventions changed the way
people lived.

Key
Points:

•       Thomas Edison invented light bulb.

•       Thomas Edison changed the way people work.

•       Thomas’s inventions made it possible for
all technologies such as T.V.s, radios, computers, etc.

•       Alexander Graham Bell invented
telephone.

•       Graham Bell changed the way people
communicate. No longer people need to send telegraphs or mail, they now can
call and talk to people instantly.

 Important
Question: How inventions of telephone and light bulb change the way people live?

 Vocabulary: light bulb, Thomas Edison,
Alexander Graham Bell, invention, telephone

Materials:

LCD

Writing Prompt

Invention Project (in class)

Graphic Organizer

Invention Project (Homework)

Opening
(10 minutes):

Teacher:

•       At the beginning of the lesson, instructor
will put the starter on the board, “What is the most important invention of all
time?”

•       She will ask the students to discuss the
starter with groups.

•       She will ask students to share their
starter.

•       She will explain the objectives for the lesson.

 By the end of this lesson, students explain
what Thomas Edison, and Alexander Graham Bell invented, and how these
inventions change people’s life.

Students:

•       Students will write their own starter.

•       They will share ideas with their peers.

•     
They will share their ideas with the whole class.

Introduction
of the Material (20 minutes):

Teacher:

•       She will tell the students that they
will do a gallery walk to know about two inventors, Thomas Edison, and Graham
Bell.

•       She will explain the work of gallery
walk.

•       She will tell students that each table
will have one of the two inventors that they will learn today.

•       She will explain that when Students are
done with the gallery walk they will go to the next station.

•        She will tell them that part of the
gallery walk has a video that will be shown when the two stations are completed.

•       She will tell them that a graphic
organizer will be filled during the walk.

•       She will check them as they finish the
gallery walk.

Students:

•       Students will fill the graphic organizer
during their walk.

•       They will finish the gallery walk
quietly and patiently.

•       Students will ask the questions from the
teacher if any arise.

•       They will complete the writing prompt.

 

Guided
Practice (15 minutes):

Teacher:

•       Teacher will show a brief PowerPoint presentation
on Edison and Graham Bell.

•       She will emphasize that these inventors
changed people’s life in the beginning of 20th century and how way we live now.

•       She will highlight that G. Bell made
communication easier. People don’t send telegraphs and mail to connect with
someone. They now use telephone which saves time, and revolutionized the way of
communication.

•        Teacher
will define two different methods to ask the students which way is quicker and easier.
She will use a letter and ask the class pass until it reach the last person in
the class. Then, she will pretend that he is calling the class, and suddenly
tell class the same message. She will then ask them to analyze how telephone has
been a useful invention.

•       She will emphasize that T. Edison invented
the practical light bulb with other important inventions including 1,093
patents. Thomas got a significant influence on research. Light bulbs changed the
way we work. No longer people restricted to daytime for work and can work at
night.

•       Teacher will ask students fill another
part of organizer during Power Point presentation.

Students:

•       Students will listen to the PowerPoint.

•       Fill out the organizer.

•       Ask questions about the Presentation.

 

Independent
Practice 35 minutes:

Teacher:

•       Teacher will inform the students about  a two-day project involving inventing a new
machine to make life easier for human.

•       That first they have to fill out a
graphic organizer to ask them main questions about the invention.

•     
 She will give out the graphic
organizer.

•       She will tell them that they will write
about their invention and next day they will do sketching and do the final
piece of the invention.

•       She will spend a sufficient time
brainstorming as class inventions.

•       She will emphasize that their invention
should be an attempt to serve mankind.

•       She will ask students questions if any.

•       She will help the passive students to
create their own invention.

She will explain that after they finish
to complete their invention project, they will work on following writing prompt.

Formative
Assessment:

Teacher will provide students the
writing prompt to assess their grasp of knowledge.

How Thomas Edison and Alexander changed
the world we live in today?

What the world could look like today if
these inventions were never made?

Do they think that the world is a
better place or not, because of these inventions? Explain.

Students:

•  
     Students will fill a graphic
organizer for their inventions.

•        Those having difficulty will work with teacher
to complete the organizer.

 

Closing
of 10 minutes:

Teacher:

•       Teacher will ask the students to read or
describe their writing in their writing prompts.

•       She will tell the students that they will
continue inventing their project in the next lesson.

•       She will introduce that project.

•       Remind them of their homework – their
inventor projects.

•       Ask them any last minute questions.

Student:

•       Students will answer the given questions.

•       They will ask any last moment questions.

 Homework:
Science project on the technical innovations of the 20th century.

Assessment:
Teacher will assess their writing prompts to know whether the students grasped
how Graham Bell and Edison changed people’s life.

 

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