2. Discussion offindings2.

1. Backgroundinformation about APDAPD is one of the mentalhealth conditions, which was characterized by great shyness, social inhibition,hypersensitivity to rejection and feelings of inferiority (Ekern, 2013). Thiscondition was classified as Cluster C, a category for fearful & anxiousdisorders, and was acknowledged in the DSM (Diagnosticand Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) in 1980, according to Furnham(2017). He also stated that APD isequally common between two sexes and is estimated to affect from 0.5% to 1% ofthe world population, although DSM suggests that the figure was approximately2.

4 %, and from 10% to 20% of psychiatric outpatients.As reported by Ekern(2013), APD has four subtypes, as almost all people with this disorder willshow a mixture of symptoms. The four main subtypes of APD are Phobic (beingextremely afraid of particular situations or objects), Conflicted (confusion,being unable to settle worried feelings), Hypersensitive (greatly mistrustful,apprehensive and fearful), and Self-deserting. 2.2. Symptoms of APDGluck (2014) stated thatAPD initial signs appear during early years, but often seem to be normal untillate adolescence. Nearly all children express some anxiety and shyness wheninteract with new people or situations; these behaviors seem to be normal, theyonly become a big trouble if continue during adulthood.According to WebMD(n.

d.), APD individuals have a tendency to avoid talking in socialcircumstances for fear of embarrassment due to saying something wrong. Theyalso avoid social activities because of their fear of being criticized orrejected. In addition, there aremany other symptoms that can be recognized, such as: reluctant to communicateor make friends with others, except when they are sure that those peoplecertainly like them; worry about being ridiculed or shamed, even within closerelationships; diffident in interpersonal environments due to feelings ofinadequacy; feel uncomfortable, socially isolated and inferior to other people;unwillingly take part in any activities that may make them being embarrassed(Lucida Treatment, 2014). As reported by Bressert (2017), these symptoms willdecline along with ageing, as many people aged 40 and over suffer fewersymptoms.

Gluck (2014) also notedthat some of APD symptoms can be visibly seen in many circumstances, but thereare also some symptoms happen inside their experiences which cannot be spottedby naked eyes. 2.3. Causes of APDResearchers andscientists do not know exactly what are the reasons of APD, although it istheorized by a number of experts that there are genetic, social andpsychological factors contribute to this mental problem’s causes (Bressert,2017). First of all, gene is apossible reason for this illness.

A study carried out in Norway on teenagersindicated that the inheritability of APD is between 27% and 35%. Moreover,approximately 83% of these genes also have some connections with otherpersonality disorders (Lucida Treatment, 2014). Secondly, this disorderappears may be due to the impact of social environment on people. LucidaTreatment (2014) stated that individuals who have APD did not learn appropriateskills to cope with different challenges from their childhood and adolescence.

Consequently, they become shy and afraid of facing new situation and have apossibility of having APD.Accordingto Hageman, Francis, Field& Carr (2015) in their research, many studies indicated that there is aconnection between APD patient’s childhood experiences and development of APD.A majority of people who suffer from APD experienced childhood maltreatmentsuch as sexual abuse or emotional neglect from their own parents. Theoverprotection from parents can also lead to the initial beginning of APD’ssymptoms. Moreover, APD individuals have tendency to be teased by their peersat a young age, about appearance, performance or behaviors. Consequently,teasing can result in negative emotions and numerous difficulties in involvingin social circumstances. As the result, these experiences contribute to risk factors that can hurt these children mentally, and then makes them become potential patient of APD.

2.4. Treatments of APDTo deal with this issue,APD individuals need to be cure accurately.Currently, there is no medicine for treating APD (Draco et al., 2016). The typical way to treat this mental conditionis psychotherapy, according to Bressert (2017).

However, this treatment hassome challenges, such as the requirement of interactionbetween therapist and patient about personal things they are unwilling to talkabout, which could hurt them a lot. Therefore, therapists need to build a trustfuland therapeutic relationship with patient in order to prevent them from leavingunfinished treatment.Asreported by Bressert(2017), while some APD individuals canwithstand long-term psychotherapy, many peoplego to therapist only when they are stressful, which is a common symptom of thisdisorder. These short-term psychotherapies will only concentrate on the instantproblems in patient’s life, provide them some new coping skills. APD patientwill cancel the treatment as soon as the problem disappears.


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