2.1 Supply Chain and Stakeholder A supply chain is a system that involves several stages before the product gets to the buyers, it’s the consists of all parties involved either directly or indirectly in fulfilling the customer’s request. According to Christopher 1998, he defines a supply chain as “The network of an organization that are involved, through upstream and downstream linkages, in the different processes and activities that produce value in the form of products and services in the hands of the ultimate customer” (Christopher, 1998). A successful supply chain management is built on 8 stages implementing cross-functional processes. Customer relationship management Supplier relationship management Customer service management Demand management The order fulfilment Manufacturing flow management Product development and communication Returns management. Supply Chain model 1 In a clothing industry see model 1, a supply chain starts with stage 1 the design of the products which includes details of the fabric, silhouettes, trims and finishes. Stage 2 – the material production either growing or creating the raw materials such as cotton picking, spinning fibre, weaving fabric and dying of the materials. Stage 3 – Is the clothing production this involves cutting, sewing, and finishing of the garments. Stage 4- once the products are manufactured, they are then transported globally to retailers where they would then be sold to consumers. Primark does not directly own any of the suppliers and factories they work with, so they get their products produced in different parts of the world; which include China, India, Turkey, Bangladesh and Eastern Europe. They place their orders with the factories and suppliers who then produce the products on their behalf. Primark is in partnership with these organizations: Ethical Trade and Environment Sustainability who are located within the key sourcing countries who monitors the compliance of the products on behalf of Primark, the goods are then transported globally to Primark’s distribution centres in Leicestershire and Naas until they are ready to be sold in their stores. Stakeholder A stakeholder is defined as anyone with an interest in a business, they can be internal or external see model 2, they can be individuals, groups or organisations “who are affected by or can affect the business’s objectives”. Johnson and Scholes 2002 explained stakeholders as “Stakeholders are those individuals or groups who depend on the organisation to fulfil their own goals and on whom, in turn, the organisation depends” (Johnson and Scholes, 2002). Stakeholders model 2 Stakeholder management helps the business in engagement strategies and build positive relationships with them by setting objectives and managing their expectations. This enables the business to progress toward their business objectives by keeping their stakeholders satisfied. Workers – The garment workers are the most vulnerable part of the supply chain, Primark is in partnership with Ethical Trading organisations within their supply chain, who ensures that the needs of the workers are met. This is being treated fairly and decent, no child labour, working in good conditions, paid fair wages, and job security. Suppliers and Manufactures – Pay bills promptly, being clear about deadlines, place orders in good time and build fair relationships. Customers – Primark ensure the needs of customers are made by producing good quality products at reasonable prices, provide good customer service and develop customer loyalty.