Abstract: Area detection and measuring is one of the fundamental
problems in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) because it mainly relates to the
continuity and functionality of any routing protocol within Region of Interest
(ROI).  While there are holes in the ROI,
Field of movement tracking such as that of animals, people and vehicles can’t
be achieved. Also some phenomena such as fire spreading or water flood can be
controlled by calculating the area of the holes, resulting from the damaged
sensor networks. In this paper, a new mathematical wireless sensor hole detection
algorithm (Wireless Hole Detection) WHD is proposed to accurately estimate the
exact amount of coverage holes under random deployment of sensor nodes. WHD is
developed for achieving Quality of Service (QoS) in terms of power consumption,
and average hole detection time. The dynamic behavior of the proposed WHD
depends on executing  the following
steps. Firstly, WHD algorithm cuts down the ROI into many cells using the
advantage of the grid construction to physically partition the ROI into many
small individual cells. Secondly, WHD algorithm works on each cell individually
by allocating the nearest three sensor nodes to each of the cell’s coordinates
by comparing their positions, WHD connects each cell’s coordinate points with the
selected sensor nodes by lines which constructs a group of triangles, then WHD calculates
the area of upcoming triangles. Repeating the previous step on all the cells,
WHD can calculates and locates each hole in the ROI. The performance evaluation
depends on the NS-2 Simulator  as a
simulation technique to study and analyze the performance of WHD algorithm. Results
show that WHD outperforms in terms of average energy consumption and average
hole discovery time as compared with Path Density algorithm (PD) and noVel Coverage
Hole Discovery Algorithm (VCHDA).


Keywords:  Wireless Sensor Networks,
WSN holes Coverage, Hole detection.

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