1. Introduction (work done by Chan Ka Yin)    The word “Depression” is becoming more popular in recent years. The arising number of  teenagers’ suicide cases put “depression” into a heated discussion. Owing to tragedies have happened, it awakes Hongkongers the severity of depression. Apart from teenagers, any stages of age may have the possibility to suffer from mental illness and arise to these similar tragic endings. Mental illness is never far away to be talked with.

   A group of figures have been posed by The Centre for Health Protection that there are 3% of people had experience at least 1 times per week, however, about half of the sufferers never thought of seeking medications or treatments (cited in Shirley, Z., 2017). This shows the severity of depression and the knowledge of how to manage their mental illness is insufficient. Depression is said to be significant because it is the main cause of suicide stated by Dr. Chan, the director of health (cited in Shirley, Z., 2017). The Coroner’s Court’s suicide cases noted that from 2011 to 2015, there are around three quarters of people who commit suicide due to their depression symptoms (cited in the Hong Kong Government, 2017).

   To cope with depression, mental health service play primmitive role. However, the manpower in medical field is always demanding. The waiting time in Hong Kong for psychiatric patients to see doctors has increased to more than three years (Elizabeth, C., 2016). Furthermore, the most affected target age group will be the elderly.

The risk of commiting suicide among elderlies with depression symptoms increase 2.2 times than that do not (The Hong Kong Government, 2017). It poses a threat to future medical field due to aging in population, the risk of having mental illness will slurgingly increased.

   By seeing the point of depression is becoming more youthful and sever to have, preventing the worsening of depression situation is eager to do.2. Problem2.1.

Causes of depression in teenagers (work done by Tsang Lok Yee)    There are several causes of depression in teenagers. For instance, the main causes that teenagers may suffer from depression are academic stress, problems at home and at school. Causing the depression by financial struggles in family, having low self-esteem, lacking the ability to face the difficulties is possible (Kavya. vidyarthi., 2015).    No doubt the academic stress will lead to depression suffered from teenagers. Compare with the pass, social competition have been more and more drastic. Teenagers are one of the victim of this society.

There is a possibility that teens will be thought they are not competitive enough lead to feeling stressful. Moreover, the parents are having the greatest expectation of children’s’ achievement. The parents may want them to take part in several extra-curriculum class such as Mathematical Olympiad classes after school. They may feel stressful due to they don’t have enough resting time for recreation.    Teens may suffer the depression as a result of problem at home. For instance, they may having divorcing parents. It will cause emotional disturbance of teens due to facing the dissolution family. Teens may feel depression while facing their parents are quarrelling with each other.

Moreover, teenagers are on the rebellious period, who may ignore or argue with their parent lead to have conflicts and a bad relationship . These will cause stressful to the teenagers. Nowadays, parents are having long working hours and do not take initiative to care about their children or communicate with them. Teens will consider their emotion and feeling are neglected by their parents lead to feeling loneliness and neglected. In some extreme cases, teens may suffer from domestic violence lead to feel ashamed and become self-enclosed to protect themselves from harm.They may feel stressful due to they would not express their emotional and feel no one they can talk with and understand them.    Teens may also have problem at school lead to suffer from depression. The targets of the abuse are tend to teenagers who are different to others.

The act of the abuse are designed to induce the victims a sense of powerlessness and helplessness, who are forced to experience the painful stress and helpness that they cannot handle and ignore (Angela.  O., 2010). Moreover, teens may not know how to avoid being bully. The bullies are based on the race, religious, physical disability and family background. There several shortcomings of teens being bully.

For instance, there is a possibility that the teens will be engaged in self-annihilation behavior like drug abused or smoke. Low self-esteem is also a disadvantage of peer pressure owing to the alienation from the peers. They may think they are different from the others and cannot gain support from the peers.     Those are the causes of depression in teenagers. It shown that it is a very serious problem in Hong Kong.2.2 Causes of depression  in adults (work done by Lai Tsz Shan)There are two types of causes of depression in adults which are adverse life events and personal factors.

In adverse life events, there is the death of a close relative, a crisis in marriage, chronic illness and unemployment. (Ching et al.,2017) In personal factor, hormones can cause depression. (Ching et al.,2017)First, the death of a close relative will experience in loss and grief which cause depression. A close relative is part of people’s lives. Since they live together for many years and get along for a long time. So they have a deep feeling.

When there is the death of a close relative, people may disbelieve in reality death and difficult to trust it is truth. People feel guilt which they think it is their fault because they can’t save their close relative. Also, people will regret didn’t cherish the time together. With the continuous self-blamed can affect people sentiment then cause depression.

Second, the crisis in marriage can cause depression. When the relationship occurs unresolved conflict, it will cause frequent quarrels. Then, result in anger and annoyance. With the continuous negative interactions, the relation will become worse. If the problem between a relationship can’t solve, it may divorce. In addition, there will be variously worried led by problems in the marriage. Such as finance, future or their child.

These problems may disturb the mood of people.Then people suffer from depression. Third, chornic illness can cause depression.

Such as cancer, stroke or diabetes. The illness can make people feel pain, appetite decrease or affect mobility. With the chronic illness, people life will have a big changes.     2.3 Causes of depression in elderly (work done by Chiu Pui Ying)There are four main causes.

Frist is degradation and disease of the bodies. Many health problems will appear when people are getting old. It directly affects their life and moods. These involve physical and psychological factors. The disease such as thyroid problem and cerebrovascular disease can cause endocrine disorder. The emotion becomes unstable due to abnormal secretion of hormone.

This is a pathological cause. The degradation of the body also lead to depression psychologically. The elderly usually have limited mobility. They lose the motivation and don’t want to move although they have the ability to go about the social activities.

Another psychological factor is the pressure under chronic illness. The elderly lack knowledge about the illnesses. They may feel confused because they don’t know what treatment they receiving and what the prognosis are.These lead to negative thinking to the elderly. they may become excessively nervous and troubled.

The second cause is loss of life goals after retirement, especially senior executives and professionals. They think their social status are lowered. Their social life are greatly reduced. The self-image changes.

They may doubt whether they are the burden of the society. The third cause is  the death of their spouses and close friends. They have to independently deal with all aspects of daily life since then. For example, a widower need to learn to cook the meal for himself after his wife was gone. They definitely feel grieved and lonely.

They may also feel disturbed due to the fear of death. The last cause is financial stress. The elderly from  the grass-roots lose the ability to work.

And they have to pay for medical expenses. But they don’t want to increase the financial stress on their children to support themselves. So they can only scavenge the rubbish  and sell them to earn money. Also, their savings and the allowance from government are insufficient for their daily life.

So it is stressful for the elderly. 3. Solutions3.2 Solutions to prevent adult depression (work done by Chan In Ching)  There are three solutions to prevent adult depression, which includes recognizing the signs and symptoms of depression and seek therapies for depression, getting and providing support and reduce stress. First, recognizing the signs and symptoms of depression could help patients seek medical treatment earlier in order to prevent the worsening of the situation and to cure the problem as soon as possible (Holmes, 2014). The general clinical presentations of depression in adult includes change in appetite or weight, loss of interest or pleasure in most activities, sleep disturbance, restlessness, poor concentration, decreased effectiveness at work, feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt, having recurrent thoughts of death or suicide.

If some of the mentioned signs and symptoms are observed and lasts for more than 2 weeks for most of the day, they are advised to seek therapies for depression (Lyness, J.M., 2017). There are different types of psychotherapy for depression, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy and problem-solving therapy.  Through the therapy, patient could eliminate self-destructive patterns like negative thinking patterns. Patients could receive fresh perspectives and get behavioral strategies from the therapist so that they could learn to think in a positive way. Therapist might provide them some healthier ways to cope with stressful situations and difficult emotions through a problem-solving therapy.

They could also learn ways to take better care of themselves and find ways to live their life in more constructive and empowering ways.Second, adult depression can be prevented by getting support from others or providing support to others (Smith, M., Segal, R., Robinson, L.

, & Segal, J., 2017). Getting support from people around them could help reduce their workload so that they could have time to rest and relax. People around them may include co-workers, colleagues, family members and friends. Getting support from them could be as simple as involving coworkers in shared responsibilities at work, asking family members to help with housework and talk to trusted and supportive friends or family members to get advice and delighting ideas for their concerns. Apart from getting support from others, providing support for depressed family members or friends could make them feel cared. For example, encourage and allow them to express their feelings and thoughts, share ideas with them and tell them they are not alone to show them there are people who care about them. However, telling them to “get over it” or “be positive” might bring negative effects as they may have already tried their best to “be positive” (William, P.

, 2016). It is necessary to encourage them to seek medical advices and accompany them if they are fear of the therapy. Lastly, chronic stress is one of the most avoidable common causes of depression. It can cause physical changes in the brain which affects moods and emotions that leads to depression. Learning how cope with stress can avoid depression. Exercising regularly, such as taking a daily walk, can reduce stress (Gotter, 2017). To reduce stress, it is important to avoid over-committing to work (Gotter, 2017).

Finding a balance between personal, work, and family needs by creating and following a schedule could help reduce stress (Smith, M., Segal, R., Robinson, L., & Segal, J., 2017). Having a schedule can remind them when to stop working and start relaxing, it avoid putting too much time on work which could be the most stressful activity for adults.

Besides, avoid negative thinking by not just focusing on the dark side but also look the the bright side can reduce stress as negative thinking can trigger body’s stress response. Difficult situations may make people feel stressful, learn to let things go that they can’t control could make them feel less guilty when bad things happen (Gotter, 2017). They should always believe in themselves that they will get through it. This could be their energy to overcome through their difficult time. 3.

3. Solutions to prevent elderly depression (work done by Chan ka yin)   For the solutions of preventing elderly depression. Though elderly depression is less prevalent than that of younger adult, it may brings out much serious consequences as the outcome (Amy. F., Julie. L.

W. & Margaret. G., 2009). It is because the difficulties in diagnosing elderly depression. Elderlies may not know how to express their own health condition to the doctor due to not being aware of their body changes. They might only focus on physical discomfort or avoid telling emotional disturbances, even resist treatment.

Also, depression symptoms are very similar to that of dementia, hence, it’ll lead to the treatments provided are wrong focused (Mimi, W., n.d.). These explain why others should aware to their conditions.

  It is fundamentally important to arise others’ attention of elderlies’ body changes. To be done by observing their signs and symptoms, they may have great changes in cognitive, mood or behavior, especially for sudden loss interest in activities or not eating for some days, these are needed to provide huge concern. The primitive method to stop the appearance of any symptoms is to keep up in hobbits or join social activities as a result to maintain psychological well-being (Mimi, W., n.d.

).   Furthermore, being people around the elderlies, ones should have the responsibility to encourage them seeking treatments. They may resist in seeking medications due to the thought of increasing burden on their daughters or sons. If they refuse to seek medications, you should be more carefully use terminations by avoiding “depression, drugs, therapy”. Do not trying to complaint at first, but talk with them gently. In the aims of trying to understand the reason behind them for not seeing doctor, then find another way to break through gradually. For instance, if they afraid of loss once they are diagnosed as depression, you can accompany them and explain to them you will always support them.

As according to Kathleen Buckwalter, professor of gerontological nursing, the elderly may not know how to cope with feeling of loss due to added years of meanings (cited in Health, n.d.).    In addition, caregivers should not take over their daily lives by doing things that they actually can do for themselves, such as tying a tie.

You should assist them in finishing a task, if not, they may regard themselves as meaningless and arise perception of worthless or incapable (Kathleen B., n.d., cited in Health, n.

d.). Helping them to gain confidence and establish sense of being worthiness, by the means of encouraging them to accomplish optimal tasks and giving compliments or positive suggestions appropriately, can distract their feeling of meaningless to prevent depression.


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