1.IntroductionFora long time now, there has been an argument on nature versus nurture in thedevelopment of human, which is one of the biggest problems in DevelopmentPsychology.
Some people argue that inherited genes have an enormous impact onhuman development. For example, kid’s stature, eye shading, and facialappearance are generally control by genetic factors. As Rothbart, Ahadi, andEvans (2000) and D. C.Rowe, Almeida, and Jacobson (1999) says, “Children’stemperament – their characteristic ways of responding to emotional events,novel stimuli, and their own impulses – seems to be in part affected by their individual genetic make-up”Nonetheless there are those who claim that we are effected by our environmentsuch as cultural experiences, social interactions with other people, etc.Clearly, support influences youngters’ advancement through various channels:physically through sustenance, exercises, and stress; mentally through casualencounters and formal guidelines; and socially through grown-up good examplesand companion connections. Therefore, there has always been a continuingcontroversy whether innate or environment gains a more dominant influence onindividual growth. However the role of heredity and nurture must be reconsideredin light of the Human Genome Project’s surprising results.
According to resultof the Human Genome Project, “Since 95% of the population possess “fit” genes,dysfunctions in this population are attributable to environmental influences(nurture)”. Therefore, this paper, with the purpose of sharing three keys explanationsas to why human improvement depends essentially on ecological variables, nothereditary elements.1. Discussionof findings 2.1.Background information aboutnature and nurtureBeforethis issue can be fully discussed, it is necessary to understand what natureand nurture actually are. The definition of nature derives from the genetic inheritance or the geneticmake-up, which a person inherits from both parents at the time of conception andcarries it throughout life (Stephanie Mojica,2017).
As Kail, and Cavanaugh(2013) said that “nature is concerned with traits that are geneticallyinherited”. There are many things in an individual, which are heredity factorssuch as sex, shade of eyes, hair and skin, hazards for specific infections,tallness and different qualities. On the other hand, in a 2017 article “How donature and nurture influence human development”, Stephanie Mojica claims that “nurture can be defined as the differentenvironmental factors to which person is subjected from birth to death”.Obviously, environmental elements include a host of dimensions. They involveboth physical environments and social environments. For instance, an individualhas to suffer from and expose to not just pressure from their friends but also parentalideals or preconception of society.2.2.
Heredity dimension depends onenvironmental factors Itis essential to realize that nature as the form of inherited traits does existbut in general, an individual’s behavior is effected significantly by nurtureor upbringing. In the past years, “genetics were able to persuade mostpsychologist that inherited plays an effective role in influencingintelligence” (Plomin and Defries, 1998). Nevertheless, “a high degree ofheredity does not mean that the environment has no influence on the developmentof any trait” (Neisser et al, 1995). The heredity characteristics are notalways evidently expressed at birth. Many physical features are revealed whenpeople go through the process of “maturation”- the term used by T.M McDevittJ.
E.Ormrod. According to his study, through the course of development, nature elements are just improved completely.For example, traits such as weight can be inherited, but it can also be enhancedby the exterior conditions – surroundingenvironment. Another trait is height which is “an inherited trait, but it hasincreased in recent generations in the United States” (Sternberg, 1996).
Accordingto this study, environmental supports such as food, reasonably safe andtoxin-free surroundings, and responsive care from others, which are necessaryfor maturation to occur; inherited traits never works alone. Many recent surveys carried out on infant andchildren behavior have shown that there is significant evidence to support thefact that environmental factors strongly impact human development , especiallyin the early years. In today’s world, almost all parents encourage their kidsto participate in some supplemental activities such as learning music, dancing,and sports in order to enhance anddevelop talents or interests of kids. Probably, those talents have been givenby nature, however they can only be developed into fluent skills when they haveexperienced the severe work of environment elements.
Hence, in the article”Myths, Countermyths, and truth about intelligence”, Sternberg states that “intelligencecould be partially or even highly heritable and, at the same time, partially oreven modifiable” (Sternbeg, p.14). Moreover, in other words, nature’s partneris nurture – the environmentalconditions. “Nature and nurture are partners also in the transactions betweenthe gene and the variety of internal environments that surround it within thebody (Greenough, 1991; Greenough and Black, 1992). Since then, it is time toreconsider about both terms of natureand nurture that they are inseparable and complementary to each other. Especially,it is not nature versus nurture, it is rather nature through nurture.2.3.
Environmental factors have amore dominant influence on peopleUndoubtedly,nurture plays a really massive role in early human development. Nurture inseveral methods or another encourage individual’s competence to learn and studynew things. There is the common proverb that ” practice makes perfect”. Hence,a person can pick up knowledge by exercising to adapt to all or any creationsin these circumstances or conditions. The section that nurture plays in humandevelopment has been proved by psychologists in experiments where steppingobserve was administered to a cohort of presumption for a few minutesrepeatedly during a day. It was later that these youngsters were able to walkmany days earlier than some infants who had not been stepped exercise.(Zalazo,Zelazo and Kolb,1972).
Everyone was born with a detailed set of potential,however if not put in the right situation, those potentials can never flourish.This will, then, hinder human development. Inherited factors do not guarantee aperson’ progressive process. Environments factors, on the opposite aspect ofthe argument, shape who someone are, how people work together with others, andhow they behave. John Watson, who established the Psychological school ofBehaviorism, emphasized that despite a child’s inherent potentials , peoplewill be able to be conditioned and trained to become anyone, which is notrequires a specific a set of experiences.
Because that development isinfluenced and stimulated by the atmosphere they live in.Obviously,it is evident that genetic factors is responsible for manufacturing healthy,well-developed babies. It is also environmental elements that play a pivotalrole within early stages of human development. Analysis has ended certainlythat early human development is faster because environment conditions are formedon the competence provided by inherited.Moreover genetic elements is responsible for the conventional development ofthe craniate into a standard and healthy baby, however it cannot entirely develop that craniate into an intelligent, knowledgeableor athletic adult.
This can be potential solely through the exposure thatnurture provides someone. Thus, it would be correct to mention that even thoughthe character has a point of influence, nurture powerfully influences earlyhuman development.