1. Introduction

Aging can be defined as a
natural and universal process causing progressive loss of physiological integrity
and functions of body that results in decline in all the biological systems including
but not limited to molecular interaction, cellular functions, tissue structure
and function as well as systemic physiological homeostasis.1,2 It also causes accumulation of
several deleterious factors, which increases the susceptibility to several
types of diseases and infections.3 All these factors result in
progressive increase in mortality. The advances in medical field and public
health have helped increase the life expectancy which has resulted in upsurge
in the number of elderly population.4 The increasing focus of
researchers on aging researches has helped unlocking several questions
regarding aging. Aging has found to be modulated by combination of genetic and
environmental conditions.5,6 Of the environmental
conditions, food is one of the major factors that influences aging.7 Calories Restriction (CR) has
shown to extend lifespan in several species. N-Acetylcysteine has also shown to
slow the aging process and extend the life span. However, the exact underlying
mechanism for the extension by both food and N-Acetylcysteine are yet to be
completely explored. 8,9In this research we tried to determine
the mechanism of life span extension by calorie restriction and

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In aim (a) we analyzed the role
of CR in increasing locomotory activity of drosophila. Calorie restriction is
the calorie intake reduction without causing malnutrition. CR has shown to
increase locomotory activity in different species. 10–12 It not only increases the life
span but also delays several age related symptoms, which ultimately helps in
improving the quality of life. Shortened level of particular renal gene has
shown to lead to a shortened life suggesting the roles of expression level of
renal genes in extension of life span. 13 In this research we have shown
increase in locomotory activity induced by dietary restriction increases the
life span.



In aim (b) we analyzed the role of in alteration of expression levels of
ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) scavenger genes. N-acetylcysteine is the N-acetyl
derivative of cysteine and has been medically in use for the treatment of
paracetamol overdose and as mucolytic agent. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine
is known as radical scavenger and/or cysteine donor. It also works as precursor
for glutathione.webpage9 ROS are the byproducts of cell metabolism and the accumulation of which
has detrimental effect on several cellular component causing cell damage.14 In the 2nd part of our research, we have shown that
scavenging of these ROS by increased expression of ROS scavenger genes results
in increase in life span.


We used Drosophila as in vivo model in our research in order
to reveal the mechanism of life span extension by calorie restriction and
N-acetylcysteine. The use of drosophila accounts to ease of handling, cheap
cost and about 70% of drosophila genes having human homologs. Apart from this, it
has relatively short life span. Also, the fly is composed of post-mitotic
cells, which is well suited for the study of aging mechanisms.9,15 Key genes and major pathways
are evolutionary preserved in between human and drosophila, which also supports
the use of drosophila in research. 16.



Studies have shown that both
dietary restriction and N-acetylcysteine have promising effects on improving
quality of health and life span. We have tried to put light on the mechanism of
life span extension. We hope that our research would enlarge the understanding
of mechanism behind life span extension from calorie restriction and
N-Acetylcysteine and would pave path for further researches in this topic. 


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