1. HTMLHTMLis used for writing webpages. It’s a scripting language.HTML standsfor Hypertexts Markup Language. Hypertext is a text that works as a link. Markup Language is a way of writing your layout information in documents or pages.

An HTML document is aplain text file that contains text in structured form with an extension .htm or.html. When any browser opens an HTML file, Browser looks for HTML codes in thetext files and uses them to change layouts, insert images, or create links tonavigate to other pages.Hence HTML tags can be written in any simple text editor.We can create our pages using some popular HTML editors, such as notepad, notepad++,sublime editor, FrontPage or Dreamweaver.

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Syntax:Contents to Written hereEg.ParagraphOpens and closes anHTML document to provide information about thedocument for use primarily by search engines & browsers The title of the document All the content of the pages // for Hyperlink

    Ordered list

the main content of the web pages
2. CascadingStyle Sheets (CSS)CascadingStyle Sheets (CSS) is the W3C standard for defining the presentation orabstraction of documents written in HTML or in any XML language.

Presentation, refers to the display of document thatis displayed to the user, whether on a computer screen, laptop, a cell phonedisplay, printed on paper, or read by a screen reader in any device. CSS is aseparate language with its own syntax. Characteristicsof Syntax:·       Everystatement must include a selector and a declaration. First the selector andthen declaration.·       Thedeclaration properties are separated by semicolons.·       Eachproperty name followed by a colon and then the value for that property.

Thereare many different types of values in properties, but any given property canonly take certain specific values as set down in the specification.·       Sometimesa property can take a number of values, as in the font-family. The values inthe list should be separated by a comma and a space. ·       Aswith HTML, white space can be used to make your style sheet easier to read andwrite Useof CSS:·       Betterdownloading speed·       Makesbetter pages accessibility.·       Lesstime for maintaining and modifying the site.·       Multiplestyles will cascade into one. 3. PHPPHPis server side scripting system programming language – PHP stands for”PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor” – Syntax based on Perl, Java, and C.

Very good language for creating dynamic content and Powerful. If you want tofocus on system with dynamic content, this is a one of best to opt.TheZend FrameworkPHP’s Web Framework is acollection of classes which helps developer to develop a web application. Zendis most popular PHP framework. It is an open-source MVC framework formodern web applications. Zend Framework has some loosely coupled components,that’s why it is referred as “Component Library”.

Zend Framework provides anyPHP stack and Zend server to run Zend framework applications.Zend Studio is an IDEthat includes features to integrate with Zend Framework. It provides MVC viewand code generation. The current Zend framework 3.0 includes new componentssuch as JSON RPC server, a XML to JSON converter, PSR-7 functionality, andcompatibility with PHP 7.Zend Framework 2 is anopen source framework for developing web applications and services using PHP5.3+. Zend Framework 2 uses 100% object oriented code and utilizes most of thenew features of PHP 5.

3, namely Namespaces, Lambda Functions and Closures.Zend Framework 2 evolvedfrom Zend Framework 1, a successful PHP framework with over 15 milliondownloads. Zend Server has a free community version and a commercial version.Zend Framework FeaturesSome of the salientfeatures of Zend Framework is as follows ? Pure object oriented web application framework Advanced MVC implementation Supports multiple databases including PostgreSQL, SQLite etc., Simple cloud API Session management Data encryption Flexible URI Routing Zend provides RESTful API development support. Code reusable and easier to maintain.

Why  we use Zend Framework?What makes the ZendFramework one of the premier frameworks used by PHP developers is that – itprovides clean and stable code complete with intellectual property rights? Italso makes programming easier. It is fast, easy to learn and convenientframework. Zend supports strong cryptography tools and password hashingtechniques.          4. JavaScriptJavaScriptis a widely used web-based programming language that powers the dynamicbehavior on most websites, including this one.

In this lesson, you will learnabout data types and built-in methods, essential knowledge for all aspiringJavaScript developers. When you finish, you’ll know how to write programs thatsolve mathematical expressions, compute the length of a word, and generaterandom numbers.This lesson covers the building blocks of JavaScript. Make sureto take notes and pace yourself. This foundation will set you up forunderstanding more complex concepts later.Syntax Overview:External Scripts:Script can also be loaded from an external file asbelow:Javascript variables: JavaScript Operators and Constructs:Operators and constructs are similar to C.User Interaction:There are three built in methods of doing userinteraction in JavaScript:·       alert(msg)·       confirm(msg)·       prompt(msg,default) JavaScript Events:These are some common events used in javascript-·       onloadand onunload : When a page is first visit or left·       onfocus,onblur,onchange:events pertaining to form elements·       onsubmit:when a form is submitted·       onmouseover,onmouseout: menu effects DOM Document Object Model :TheDOM gives us a way to access and manipulate the contents of a document.

Wecommonly use it for HTML, but the DOM can be used with any XML language aswell. And although we’re focusing on its relationship with JavaScript, it isworth noting that the DOM can be accessed by other languages too, such as PHP,Ruby, Python, C++, Java, Perl, and more. Although DOM Level 1 was released bythe W3C in 1998, it was nearly five years later that DOM scripting began togain steam.

DOM Element Contents·       element.innerHTML: This property represents the HTML within the element·       element.textContent:The plain text within the element     Example:Documenttitle                  



Paragraph text with a link here.

More text here.

    JavaScript Objects:The following are the objects we use –·       NumberObject:Represent s date, integer, floating point numbers,  Browser automatically converts number litralsto instances of the number.Var val= new Numner(number);·       BooleanObject :Always holds the resultant value TRUE/FALSEVar val=new Boolean(value);·       StringObject:Let’s you work with a series of characters,it wrapsJavascripts string primitive data type with a number of methods.Var val= new String(string);·       ArrayObject:Var fruits= new Array(“apple”, “pineapple”,”guava”,”mango”,”oranges”);·       DateObject:New Date();   JsonJSONor JavaScript Object Notation is a lightweight text-based open standarddesigned for human-readable data interchange. The JSON format was originallyspecified by Douglas Crock ford, and is described in RFC 4627. The officialInternet media type for JSON is application/json. The JSON filename extensionis .

json. This tutorial will help you understand JSON and its use withinvarious programming languages such as PHP, PERL, Python, Ruby, Java, etc.            5.    AJAX(Asynchronous JavaScript and XML):AJAXis a new technique for creating better, faster and more interactive webapplications with the helpof XML,HTML, CSS and JavaScript. AJAX uses XHTML forcontent, CSS for presentation, along with DOM and JavaScript for dynamiccontent to display.           Conventional Web applications transmitinformation to and from the server using synchronous requests.

It means youfail out a form, hit submit and get directed to a new page with informationfrom the server. With AJAX, when you hit submit,  JavaScript will make a request to the server,interpret the results and update the current screen. In the purest sense, theuser would never know that anything was even submitted to the server.Benefits of Using AJAX:·       Makingthings fast·       Lookmore user friendly·       Reducingthe load on serverjQuery :jQueryis a fast,small and feature rich JavaScript library.

It makes things like HTMLdocument traversal and manipulation, event handling, animation and AJAX muchsimpler with an easy to use API that works across a multitude of browsers.Why we use jQuery?Thereare lots of other JavaScript frameworks out there but jQuery seems to be mostpopular and also the most extensible. Many of the IT giant on the web usejQuery like Google, Microsoft, IBM and Netflix.6.

    XMLXMLis a markup language similar to HTML. It stands for Extensible Markup Languageand is a W3C recommended specification as a general purpose markup language.This means, unlike other markup languages, XML is not predefined so you mustdefine your own tags. The primary purpose of the language is the sharing ofdata across different systems, such as the Internet. XMLallows you to create your own self descriptive tags, or language that suitsyour application.

XML carries the data and does not present it. It is a publicstandard.Use of XMLWe use it because it offers many advantages to uslike:·       Simplicity·       Extensibility·       Interoperability·       Openness·       Acore of experienced professionalsSessions:A common type ofclient/server session is a Web or HTTP session. An HTTP session is initiated by a Web browsereach time you visit a website. While each page visitconstitutes an individual session, the term is often used to describe theentire time you spend on the website. For example, when you purchase an item onan ecommerce site, the entireprocess may be described as a session, even though you navigated throughseveral different pages.

 7. XAMPPXAMPPstands for Cross-Platform (X), Apache (A), MySQL (M), PHP (P) and Perl (P). Itis a simple, lightweight Apache distribution that makes it extremely easy fordevelopers to create a local web server for testing purposes.

Everything youneed to set up a web server – server application (Apache), database (MySQL),and scripting language (PHP) – is included in a simple extractable file. XAMPPis also cross-platform, which means it works equally well on Linux, Mac andWindows. Since most actual web server deployments use the same components asXAMPP, it makes transitioning from a local test server to a live server isextremely easy as well.8. Eclipse IDEEclipse is an integrated developmentenvironment (IDE) used in computerprogramming, and is the most widely used Java IDE. Itcontains a base workspace and anextensible plug-in system forcustomizing the environment. Eclipse is written mostly in Java and its primary use is for developing Javaapplications, but it may also be used to develop applications in other programminglanguages via plug-ins, including Ada, ABAP, C, C++, C#, COBOL, D, Fortran, Haskell, JavaScript.NATURAL, Perl, PHP, Prolog, Python, R, Ruby (including Ruby on Rails framework), Rust, Scala, Clojure, Groovy, Scheme, and Erlang.

Itcan also be used to develop documents with LaTeX (via a TeXlipse plug-in) and packages for thesoftware Mathematica.   9. Web 2.0Web2.0, a phrase is a cluster term for the new phase of World Wide Web, which wascoined by O?Reilly and Media live International in 2003 and popularized by thefirst Web 2.0 conference in 2004.Web2.

0 SpecificationAfteremerging of Web 2.0, it is being vastly used because of its wide range ofvariety and very attractive features. Descriptive list of Web 2.0 tools areendless even though we can say that the new generation of Internetapproximately uses its tools. Web2.0 InnovationsAjax,the rich internet application technique has prompted the development ofweb-sites that copy personal computer applications like (M.

S. Office package)word processing, the spreadsheet, and slide-show presentation while some wikisites replicate many features of PC authoring applications.Modelof Web 2.0 Beforethe origin of Web 2.0, Web 1.0 was known as a Web? that was like warehouse ofinformation and static content. Then, as time passes, with the advancement oftechnology and software, a huge amount of data and content became dynamic andreturning custom results to users.

TheDesign of Web 2.0Asthe Internet world is changing very swiftly, now the users look for more than aweb site instead of simple text and picture based website. They want to be moreinteractive to the world by sharing their views; they want to show theirtalents in terms of their new creation to the global world.

For fulfillingthese necessities, a new concept was born that have all-in-one technology initself and it is called Web 2.0.Characteristicsof simple Web 2.0 WebsiteBeforemaking any Web 2.0 site, the programmers must keep in mind the followingthings, which suits the Web 2.0 technology and the site runs smoothly on theweb.                 10.

MySQLMySQL is a Relational DataBase ManagementSystem (RDBMS).RDBMS means R–DB–MS.DB stands forDatabase, a repository for the information store.·      The data in a database is organized into tables, and each table isorganized into rows and columns.·      Each row in a table is called a record. A record may containsseveral pieces (called fields) of information, and each column in a table isknown as a field.

·       MS stands for Management System, thesoftware that allows you to insert, retrieve, modify, or delete records.·       R stands for Relational, indicates a particularkind of DBMS that is good at relating information stored in one table toinformation stored in another table by looking for elements common to each ofthem. MySQL operates using client/serverarchitecture in which the server runs on the machine containing the databasesand clients connect to the server over a network. The server operating systemsis usually a Linux (like Redhat 9.

0 etc.) or Windows 2000 operating system.Typically mySQL is supported on Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, Red Hat FedoraLinux, and Debian Linux, and others.

As with any other client/serverapplication, MySQL is a multi-user database system, meaning several users canaccess the database simultaneously. program may contact the serverprogrammatically (meaning a program call the server during execution) ormanually. For example, when you are issuing commands over a telnet session to aMySQL server, you are issuing the requests to the server by typing commands atyour command prompt manually. On the other hand, if you have input some data(say your credit card information on the Internet towards purchase of somegoods) in a form, and the form is processed by using a server side program,then the MySQL server is contacted programmatically. This is often the case incredit card approvals, member subscriptions etc.Some Features ofMySQL·       Speed·       Ease of use·       Less Costly·       Query LanguageSupport·       Better Capability·       Connectivity andsecurity·       PortabilityEg. A SQL server: This is an engine whichprovides access to your databases.Client programs for accessing the server: Aprogram allows you to enter queries directly and view results.


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