1.    The waters of the Southern Ocean
surrounding AntarcticaCurrent strategies: ·        
Spatial boundaries are defined by
international agreement through the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic
Marine Living Resources (RUCKELSHAUS et al, 2008).·        
The objectives are defined for fisheries and
few birds, but not for marine mammals.·        
Commercial fishery is well supervised.·        
method is used. ·        
Though the government is for the
ecosystem-based management (EBM) approach, but implementing and monitoring it,
is problematic.Additional components for a
comprehensive EBM approach: ·        
Develop indicators of ecosystem status and
function ·        
Use different approaches and tools to tackle uncertainty
in food-web dynamics, future climate, and so on. ·        
Develop spatial strategies for each sector at
smaller, ecologically relevant scales using a mix of regulatory and
incentive-based approaches. ·        
The governance structure should be related fully
to scientific procedures and adaptive management.   2.    The Bering Sea–Aleutian Islands
ecosystemCurrent strategies: ·        
Based on hydrographic, bathymetric, and
biogeographic measure,  boundaries of large
marine ecosystems are determined ·        
Fishery-based management objectives allow species
caught as bycatch. ·        
There is a monitoring of indicators for
fished part of food web and some habitats. ·        
Explicit fishing laws have been established.·        
There are management sectors (i.e., central
and state governments, the fishing community) that make governance easy.Additional components for a
comprehensive EBM approach:·        
Identify subregions of the ecosystem that are
ecologically and politically appropriate for efficient management. ·        
Adopt broader ecosystem objectives, considering
habitats and species in higher and lower trophic levels. ·        
Include indicators for larger marine mammals,
climate-mediated processes for better predictions of ecosystem responses to
management. ·        
Integrate future set-ups of climate change
into fishery and habitat management strategies to add to the certainty of
ecosystem response. ·        
Include other managed parts of the ecosystem
(e.g., marine mammals, watershed influences) in the governance.The
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, AustraliaCurrent strategies: ·        
The boundary of the managed area is defined
by the extent of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and adjacent waters. ·        
The objectives adopted by a broad group of
users explicitly include ecological sustainability, through protection of
natural resources and human use and enjoyment of the Great Barrier Reef. ·        
There is monitoring of biophysical and some
socioeconomic attributes of the GBR Marine Park and no single report card for
reef “health.” A 25-year strategic plan outlines eight broad strategy areas; the
key is to educate the public. ·        
The different zones have been clearly mapped,
specifying the uses of the GBR Marine Park (e.g., commercial uses, tourism,
recreation, traditional uses, research) and the degree of protection (e.g
preservation). ·        
The GBR Marine Park Authority is related to
the Commonwealth and Queensland governmental organizations and Australia’s 1998
oceans policy provides a framework for EBM in marine waters.Additional components for a
comprehensive EBM approach: ·        
Advance work on performance indicators and
monitor feedback into strategies. ·        
Emphasize social, economic and biophysical aspects
of research and adaptive management.·        
Develop a plan for dealing with external
factors affecting the quality of resources within the GBR Marine Park, such as
water quality, climate change, coastal development, and fisheries. ·        
Education about the 2004 zoning plan, and
enforcement of it, are critical. Improve coordination between commonwealth and
state laws in managing the GBR Marine Park.Ecosystem-based
management approaches in coastal CaliforniaCurrent strategies: ·        
Spatial boundaries are defined by state
are objectives concerning marine protected area and general coastal ocean
Commercial fishery is well supervised.·        
Zoning framework is used.Additional components for a
comprehensive EBM approach: ·        
Establish objectives for natural and human
ecosystem components. ·        
Identify a set of natural and human system
indicators for tracking progress. ·        
Identify and get commitments for the role of
different management sectors in contributing to ecosystem objectives.

Link the governance structure to management
and scientific processes (RUCKELSHAUS et al, 2008).

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