1.     Ethnography: According toHammersly and Atkinson (1983) in ethnographic study the researcher participatesovertly or covertly in people’s daily lives for extensive time inspecting whatis happening, listens to what is being communicated by asking relevantquestions. In other words the researcher collects all the data which ispertinent to throw light on issues with which the researcher is concerned.

2.     Grounded Theory: Groundedtheory was introduced by Glaser, Strauss, and Corbin (1967). In thismethodology the researcher uses strategies which are inductive in nature fordata analysis. The researcher begins the research with no pre-existing theory,or propositions, or hypothesis, or expectation of findings but relativelypermits a theory to emerge directly from the data.  The aim of the research is not only toillustrate well the topic of study but also to develop adequate theoretical conceptualizationsof findings. The researcher begins with individual cases which are chosenbefore the research, collects and analysis the data simultaneously, conceptualizesfrom the beginning, and allows findings and conceptualizations to grow togetherand cross-fertilise. One interview builds on the prior data collections and theconceptualizations that have been developed up to that point. The researchergathers thick data and makes the meanings of the participants explicit.

Theresearcher continues this process until reaching saturation i.e. he is nolonger learning anything new. The researcher’s conceptualizations are based onhis exclusive skills and experiences.

3.     Ethnomethodology: Ethnomethodologywas developed by Garfinkel (1967) and involves the various techniques peopleuse to carry out everyday activities. An important notion in ethnomethodologyis that of reflexivity whereby social activities not only represent theeveryday social world but also create it on their own.4.     Conversation Analysis:  Conversation Analysis is aresearch methodology that grew out of ethnomethodology, and has some uniquemethodological features. It studies the social organization of conversation,the first step is to record the conversation, then a detailed inspection oftape recordings and transcriptions made from such recordings are analysed andthe final report is prepared.

5.     Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis: Interpretive phenomenological analysis is concernedwith trying to understand lived experience and with how participants themselvesmake sense of their experiences. Consequently it is concerned with the meaningswhich those experiences hold for the participants.6.     Phenomenological: The aimof phenomenological approach is to develop an entire, precise, clear andcoherent description and understanding of a particular human experience. Theresearchers achieves his objectives of the study by using special investigatorstance and selects the participants who have experienced the phenomenology,solicits the information, the data are analysed thoroughly and the final reportis prepared. 7.     Symbolic Interactionism: Symbolic interactionism is of the opinion that the humaninteraction is viewed as a set of symbolic, largely linguistic world to acertain extent than one of causes and effects.

In order to understand humaninteraction it is necessary to know how the symbols are used.


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