1.1 Prevalence ofFetal Alcohol Spectrum disorder Thefetal alcohol spectrum disorder is a difficult condition to diagnose, especiallyin undeveloped countries, where prevalence estimates of FASD are inexistent.However, some estimations have been done. The global prevalence of FASD is estimatedas 7.7 per 1000 population, being the European Region the one with the highestprevalence at 19.
8 per 1000 population. The countries with the highest estimateof FASD were South Africa with 111.1 per 1000 population, Croatia at 53.3 per1000 population, Ireland at 47.5 at 1000 population, Italy at 45.
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0 per 1000population, and Belarus at 36.6 per 1000 population (Lange et al., 2017).Onthe other hand, the estimated prevalence in selected populations has shown tobe higher than the global prevalence. It was 15.6 to 24.
6 times higher inaboriginal populations; 5.2 to 67.7 times higher in children in care; 30.3 timeshigher in correctional population; 23.
7 times higher in low socio-economicstatus; and 18.5 times higher in population in psychiatric care (Lange et al., 2017).1.
2 Consequencesof alcohol exposure during pregnancy Theexposure to alcohol during pregnancy is very harmful for the fetus as has beenshown in numerous studies, even when the level is very low it can cause damageand not only in the brain. Nowadays, it is not possible to determine a safe leveland period when drinking alcohol is not dangerous for the fetus (Sarman, 2018).Ina study performed with early chick embryos with an exposure of 2% ethanol, itwas proven the relation between alcohol exposure and an increased incidence ofparietal bone defects and retarded growth of the rostrum.
(Zhang et al., 2017) 1.3 Fetal alcoholspectrum disorder diagnosis Fetalalcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the biggest nonheritable origin of intellectualdisorder and it is caused by intrauterine exposure to alcohol. Depending on thekind of symptoms, different names are used to describe FASD: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome(FAS) which is the most extreme part of the FASD; Alcohol-Related NeurodevelopmentalDisorder (ARND) which includes problems with learning and behavior and theymight have intellectual disabilities; and Alcohol-Related Birth Defects (ARBD).Each category is differentiated by the presence or not of facial abnormalities,problems in the growth, disfunctions in the central nervous system, and neurobehavioraldisabilities. (Centers for Disease Control andPrevention, 2017)Amultidisciplinary team is needed to assess and diagnose FASD and a neurologicalassessment should be included. At the start of the diagnosis, the level ofprenatal exposure is assessed.
This information must be taken from the motheror another source like a medical record or a family member. In addition, theexposure to other drugs is analyzed too as the women who consume alcohol duringtheir pregnancy have more chances to consume drugs. To concrete a diagnosis ofFAS, the presence of this characteristics is needed: abnormal facial features,growth problems, central nervous system problems and neurobehavioral disabilities.(Denny,Coles, & Blitz, 2017)