1.0 IntroductionEmergency management is as old as human existence itself, asman has always adopted an urgent approach to issues that affect the safety ofhis life, that of his family, and his prized possessions right from theagrarian economy to the present time. The task however, has in present timesbecome more frequent and more devastating and has also become more difficult tohandle in the face of dwindling economies of nations.In the last decade 2005-2015, the idea of managing disastershas become a contemporary issue as the world has experienced an array of bothknown and new models of disaster events. Rubin (2012) listed some of thesedisasters as follows: BP oil spill (US 2010), Pakistan flood(2010) Haiti earthquake(2010) Chile (2010) New Zealand (2010 and 2011), Japan earth quake (2011).
He described the events as extraordinary and overwhelming. Others include USA (Terrorism)(9/11)(Mcintyre 2009), Hurricane Katrina, Rita and Wilma (2005). These are all on the international scene. In Nigeria, there havebeen major national disasters in the last few years. On December 18, 1980, inKano city a notable religious riot between the maitatsines, an anti-westernizationsect and law enforcement officers broke out leaving over 4000 persons dead(Danjibo 2009). On August 1998, a torrential rain induced flash flood engendereda dam-break in Bagauda, a small sleepy town in Kano state killing 142 peopleand destroying over 18,000 homes and 14,000 farms. The people of Jesse in Deltastate, woke up on October 17, 1998 to an oil pipeline explosion which killed atleast 1000 people mostly women and children. On July 10, 2000, in Ovori courtin Delta state, the fire sparked off by metal containers used to scoop fuelfrom a vandalized pipeline led to fire outbreak, which killed over 300 peopleand destroyed properties worth over $500 million.
January 27, 2002, is a daythat residents of Ikeja would not forget as over 800 persons were killed in asewage canal in Oke-Afa while fleeing from the impact of about 1000 bombs thatexploded at Ikeja Military Cantonment (Akpabio & Alao 2002).Lisa Village in Ogun state, on October 22, 2005 hosted theBellview airline (Flight 210) where all 117 people on board lost their lives.(Opara 2007, NDMF 2010, Nwaneri 2011), Sosoliso airlines DC-9 (flight 1145) washeading to PH from Abuja when it crashed 1200meters away from the airportrunway killing all 103 people on board, most of them students of a college inAbuja( Edaghe, Esosa,& Idiodi 2006),.
The Abule Egba fire ( Fadeyibi,Omosebi, Jewo & Ademeluyi 2009) Abeokuta flood of July 26, Boko Haraminsurgency and the UN building bombing of August 2011, which left about 18persons dead (Adesoji 2010), are all examples of various disasters eventsexperienced by Nigeria in the last 20years. These and many others have changedthe complexion of disaster management in the world and Nigeria in particular. The adventof newer technologies such as the internet, Global System for MobileCommunication (GSM) technology, and the use of satellite systems for peacefulpurposes have also redrawn the pattern of attending to disaster related issuesand assisted in the spread of knowledge in the field of disaster management.This paper will therefore focus on the concepts that definedisaster management, give a synopsis of the evolution of disaster management inNigeria and the various developments relating to legal and institutionalframeworks that have shaped the industry.
It will finally look at the emergingissues and how they will shape the structure, approach, individual andinstitutional strategies of the industry in the next few years. 2.0 CONCEPTS OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT Anunderstanding of disaster management is facilitated by a clear definition ofthe following concepts in disaster management.a. Hazardsb.
Vulnerabilityc. Riskd. Capacitye.
Emergencyf. Disasterg. Internally displacedpersons (IDPs)h. Refugeesi. Disaster management cyclej.
Disaster management HAZARDSThis is a source of danger that may not lead to emergency ordisaster, or simply a phenomenon with a potential to bring harm.VULNERABILITYA set of prevailing or consequential conditions resultingfrom physical, social, economic or environmental factors which increase thesusceptibility of a community to the impact of a hazard. RISKA measure of the likelihood that a hazard will manifest intoan actual emergency or disaster event and the consequences should that eventoccur, (Haddow, Bullock & Coppola. 2011), it can also be defined as theexpected or anticipated losses ( lives lost, people injured, propertiesdamaged, economic activities or livelihoods disrupted) from the impact of agiven hazard on a vulnerable element over a specific period of time. Risk =hazard x vulnerability Capacity CAPACITYThe available means, strength or resources available to copewith hazards, resist their impact, and recover quickly from the effects of thehazards. EMERGENCYA serious, unexpected and often dangerous situation requiringimmediate action. This may lead to a disaster if unattended to.
DISASTERA disaster is a serious disruption of the functioning of asociety, causing widespread human, material or environmental losses, whichexceed the ability of the affected society to cope using only its ownresources, (UNDP 2010). INTERNALLY DISPLACEDPERSONS (IDPs)These are persons or group of persons who have been forced orobliged to flee or leave their homes or places of habitual residence, inparticular as a result of, or in order to avoid the effects of armed conflict,situation of human rights, or natural or human made disasters, and who have notcrossed an internationally recognized state border, (OCHA 1999:6). REFUGEE (S)A person(s) who has/have been forced to leave his or her owncountry in order to escape war, persecution or natural disaster.DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLEA holistic and integrated approach to disaster managementwhich involves prevention, preparedness, mitigation, response, recovery andrehabilitation with emphasis on building strategic relationships at all levelsof disaster management governance. DISASTER MANAGEMENTThe coordination and integration of all activities necessaryto build, sustain and improve the capability for disaster prevention,mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. 3.0 EVOLUTION OF EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT INNIGERIAInstitutionally, emergency management started in 1906 inNigeria under the purview of the fire brigade whose duties as at then apartfrom fire fighting included the provision of humanitarian aids in emergenciesand saving of lives and properties during emergencies.
This function was transferredsubsequently to the offices of the president and the governors as politicalgovernance began to take shape in Nigeria. The drought incident of 1972/73 highlighted the short comingsof the inadequacy of a structure to handle disaster management, hence theformation of National Emergency Relief Agency (NERA) through decree 48 of 1976to handle all aspects of relief intervention resulting from this disaster andothers going forward. The sole responsibility of NERA was the collection anddistribution of relief materials. (NEMA 2012). At the end of the intervention,an inter-ministerial committee was set up to review the performance of theAgency and part of the recommendation was the 1976 stakeholders’ workshop,which considered among other things1. Effective and sustainableDisaster Management2.
Expansion of the functionsof NERA to include:§ Search and Rescue§ Policy and Strategy§ Logistics, Relief andRehabilitation§ Research and PlanningThe recommendation of this workshopled to the formation of National Emergency Management Agency through Act 12 asamended by Act 50 of 1999. 4.0 EMERGING ISSUES IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA.The formalization of Disaster managementin Nigeria in 1999 ushered in an era of integrated management and coordinationof disaster management in Nigeria with the National Emergency Management Agencyas the national focal organization (Sadiq 2012). There are many emerging issuesin disaster management amongst which are:i.
Disaster Risk Reduction(DRR)- Sendai Framework – 2015ii. Climate Changeiii. Emerging threatsiv. Legal and Institutionalframeworkv. Governance 1.
SENDAI FRAMEWORK FORDISASTER RISK REDUCTION 2015-2030This is a follow- up to the paradigm shift from reactive toproactive approach to disaster management. The introduction of Disaster RiskReduction (DRR) was articulated through the Kyoto framework 2005-2015 whichidentified five (5) Priority areas (Fagbemi 2011). The new framework which wasarrived at after vigorous negotiations has seven (7) targets and four (4)priorities for action. The four priorities includei. Understanding Disasterriskii. Strengthening Disasterrisk governance to mange disaster riskiii. Investing in DRR for resilienceiv.
Enhancing Disasterpreparedness for effective response, and to “Build Back Better” inrecovering, rehabilitation and reconstruction.These priorities will be achievedusing the following goals as summarized:i. Substantially reducedglobal mortality by 2030 hoping to lower average per 100,000 global mortalitybetween 2020-2030 as compared to 2005-2015ii. Substantially reduce thenumber of affected persons globally.iii. Reduce direct disastereconomic loss in relation to the global GDP by 2030iv. Substantially reducedisaster damage to critical infrastructural and disruption of basic services-health and education facilitiesv. Increase the number ofcountries with national and local DRR strategies by 2020.
vi. Enhance internationalcooperation to developing countriesvii. Substantially increase theavailability of and access to multi-hazard early warning systems and disasterrisk in information and assessment to the people by 2030All these priorities and goals hingedon the plan of action on DRR2. CLIMATE CHANGE:Climate change is both a complex and protracted hazard and assuch does not come into the sphere of the use of present response mechanismsbeing adapted in the country.
It is a natural phenomenon that is caused byanthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (O’Brien et.al 2012). According toObrien et al (2012) a new approach is needed to underpin the incorporation ofrisk management into the work on climate change and the introduction of climatechange into natural hazards and development planning.
Some of the concerns for climate change issues in Nigeriaincluded:a. Adaptation fundingb. Appropriate regulatorylegislationc. Government buy in for itsactionsd. Capacity building andawareness campaignse.
Collaboration andcoordination 3. LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK:Institutional frameworkestablishes the structure and relationships of governmental and non-governmental organisations including ministries, departments, individuals andthe private sector. It is meant to dictate the institutional arrangement fordisaster mitigation and management which includes the establishment of singleentity at each level of government such as National Emergency Management Agency(NEMA) responsible for coordination of such activities and maintainingcommunication and coordination. SEMA at state and LEMC at local level andcommunity based management structures.Dearth of effective legislation andpoor adherence to existing ones has become a major challenge to the practice ofemergency management in Nigeria.
The issues here range from poor legalframework to support humanitarian action through all stages of emergency cycle.Such questions as:a. Do we have laws aboutsetting up SEMAs at the states? If we do, why do we have 25 out of 37 SEMAs inNigeria?b. Why do we have 58 LEMCsout of 774 LGAs in Nigeria?c. Why are houses still beingbuilt on flood plains and drainage paths?d. Why are there no effectivelaws on Risk transfer as it relates to disasters in Nigeria?e.
Why are SEMAs poorlyfunded and poorly staffed in the midst of high demands?f. Why is the fire servicemost ignored and poorly trained and funded in a country where fire incidentsoccur on a daily basis?g. Why are there no waterhydrants in our public infrastructures?h. How many years will ittake the country to come up with a 3 digit emergency line?These are some of the questions that bother on the dailymanagement of disaster in Nigeria.
4. EMERGING THREATS:As the times go by, and the world isincreasingly influenced by the make-believe world of cinema and internet, andincrease production activities, new and more dynamic forms of hazard areappearing on the disaster scene and complicating response and recoveryactivities, among these are the following:a. Terrorism/ insurgencyb. Kidnappingc. Oil and gas pollutiond. Pipeline vandalisme.
Epidemics and pandemics 5. INTERNAL DISPLACEMENT:The concept of internal displacements is a nationalphenomenon made more topical as a result of two defining incidents in the lastdecade. the issue of concession of Bakassi Peninsula and Boko Haram debacle inthe North Eastern Region of Nigeria. Issues arising from this are:a. National IDP Policy beingthe domestication of the Kampala conventionb. Mapping of humanitarianactors in the field and gaps identificationc.
Development of analternative to IDP camp by encouraging living with host communities and workingout a support pattern for it.d. Developing Biometrics forhandling similar situations by accomplishing the National ID card schemee. Working out rules ofengagement with INGOs and NGOs participating in humanitarian action. 6. COORDINATION DYNAMICSCollaboration and coordination aretwo basic ingredients that determine the quality of all facts of disastermanagement. However, as the severity and frequency of occurrence of disastersincrease, there have been continuous strains on the dynamics of coordination inthe industry.
Stakeholders’ roles and coordination is weakened due to lowindustrial capacity and blurred lines in the roles of various organizations.The National Coordination mechanism as espoused in the National Contingencyplan has actually been very useful in identifying roles and responsibilitiesand also delineated sectors in order to make the accomplishment of rolesoptimal.In order to succeed in achievingoptimal performance in the sector, the MDAs, NGOs, INGOs, CBOs, FBOs, and theinternational development partners have to adopt the coordination mechanism andkey into the sector classifications, identify its roles according to sectorsand ensure they regularly participate in the various activities in the sector. 7. MAINSTREAMING DRR INTODEVELOPMENT PLANS/PROJECTS:Disaster risk reduction is a systematic approach toidentifying, assessing, and reducing the risks of disaster.
(wikipedia.org).This is a strategy aimed at reducing all vulnerabilities associated withhazardsThe ability of nations, states, LGAs and individuals to takenote of hazards and include variables that can reduce or eliminate them intheir projects will go a long way to eliminate or drastically reduce disaster. 5.0 CONCLUSIONThe arena of emergency management is undergoing a continuousand ever evolving transformation enabled mostly by the interesting nature ofthe disasters and hazards presenting themselves in the sphere. One way toincrease state and local investment in Disaster management is the increase infederal legislations. There has to be anincreased use of risk transfer strategy in form of insurance throughlegislations such as Flood disaster insurance act.
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